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We, the members of the Ascension Center, ascribe to the highest standards of excellence with regard to the uplifting of humankind by providing spiritual and educational awareness.

Ascension Centers was founded for Spiritual Growth, Educational Awareness, and Communication of Truth!

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We are an organization with patrons throughout the United States and the world. Subscribers receive a monthly report/newsletter online with updates.

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2012-2015

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Theresa J Thurmond Morris

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Introduction to Metaphysics and Spirituality!

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ACE Paranormal Investigations

Investigative Reporters on the Internet.

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Http://theresajmorris.com

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ACIR–ACE Metaphysical Institute, a non-denominational, non-profit educational institution. We share spiritual educational awareness for visual and performing arts and entertainment via communication on the internet using a community online practicing skills (COPS) core groups weekly.

We are set up to work with our founder Theresa J Morris as TJ Morris dba ACIR and ACE Nonprofit Inc. both of the United States of America.

We meet on the TJ Morris Radio Network. TJ Morris tm ACIR sm. American Culture International Relations with ACE Folklife Archivists Education Research Association (ACE-ERA), ACE Metaphysical Institute, Ascension Center Organization in spiritual science and paranormal topics of discussion.

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We vary in our similar interests groups as independent contractors and affiliates. Many of us own our own small business and have websites while doing our own social media online.

We are content providers as bloggers, and we meet on radio shows weekly. We welcome other radio show hosts, and producers.

ACE Nonprofit Inc. Founder is Theresa J Morris, Radio Show Host, Author-Speaker, Entrepreneur – ACE Folklife Historian – Book Author & Promoter for her ACO UFO Authors Club.

Era Cop Times News created by Theresa J Morris for her friends in cyberspace. Theresa is an author, entrepreneur and parapsychologist. Parapsychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the investigation of purportedly psychic phenomena, as clairvoyance, extrasensory perception, telepathy, and the like. TJ is a psychic medium who shares Consciousness & Soul. Love is the main ingredients as essence and energy of who and what we are as self. TJ is a Tarot Reader Life Coach and Spiritual Counselor. TJ is also an agent, consultant, and organizer and owns a small business in the USA. Theresa J Thurmond Morris, Theresa J Morris shortened her name as a brand to TJ Morris. Born Theresa Janette Thurmond, Monroe, Louisiana, USA, December 26, 1951 married, had four daughters all born in Texas. Became a private investigator, legal investigator, then worked for DOD, DON and GS status for US government. Studied arson, fraud, subrogation, personnel information security, and obtained security certificates before graduating U.S. Naval Hospital Corps School. Became interested in psychology, metaphysics, theology, neuroscience in 1980s and moved to Hawaii. Became a President CEO of a corporation and developed a line of clothing, handbags, small leather goods, shoes, and stationary items in cuercus suber oak as eco fashion 1990-1994. Founded the first Ascension Center and Psychic Network 1989 -1994. Transferred to Fort Hood, Killeen, TX where she met her husband Thomas R Morris, and US Army-Retired. Drove commercial semi 18 wheeler truck over the road all 48 lower states before becoming an author and blogger 2004-2014. Became an UFOlogist 2007 writing for UFO Digest. Author of Books 2007-2014 include Roswell Encounters, Roswell Connection, Taken Up, Enchanted Development, Theresa of Ascension, Knowing Cosmology, ACO Alien Contact Organization. TJ became a Radio Host June 3, 2012 as TJ Morris ET Radio and Cosmos Connection and has panel discussions and interviews authors. TJ is a motivational speaker in paranormal and spiritual communities with ET UFO, OBE, NDE, Dreams, and conscious experience shares. TJ has had many experiences with energy as a receiver of information as a keeper of the flame and became an archivist with her first book as Theresa Keeper of the Flame kept inside the book Ascension Ancient Mystery schools Psychic Awakening Classes which she is caretaker of the only copy as her gremremgremoire to be passed down to her four daughters.. . Ascension Ancient Mysteries shares as ACE Metaphysical Institute and Ascension Center Energetics for ACO and ACE as a joint venture in cyberspace culture sharing a universal world view with TJ Morris at the helm as Commander for radio shows as TJ Morris ET.

Theresa of Ascension – Ascension Ancient Mystery Schools – Psychic Awakening Classes & Oher things for 2012 & Beyond – The Ascension Age – Magic times of the Mind. Soul Essence Consciousness and Neuro Science. Parapsychology has been part of a book of practicing communities online since TJ began sharing the Ascension Center in 1993. TJ knew what she needed to share communication to the world. It was important to share a new world view. This was known as the Ascension Age, Aquarian Age, and Golden Age of Communication & Cosmology.

Books Grimoire

Books of magic and for the operating system term, see Source Mage GNU/Linux.

Question book-new.svg

Design for an amulet comes from a central source the Black Pullet grimoire.

A grimoire /ɡrɪmˈwɑr/ is a textbook of magic.

Such books typically include instructions on how to create magical objects like talismans and amulets, how to perform magical spells, charms and divination and also how to summon or invoke supernatural entities such as angels, spirits, and demons.

In many cases, the books themselves are also believed to be imbued with magical powers, though in many cultures, other sacred texts that are not grimoires, such as the Bible, have also been believed to have supernatural properties intrinsically; in this manner while all books on magic could be thought of as grimoires, not all magical books should.

While the term grimoire is originally European and many Europeans throughout history, particularly ceremonial magicians and cunning folk, have made use of grimoires, the historian Owen Davies noted that similar books can be found all across the world, ranging from Jamaica to Sumatra, and he also noted that the first grimoires could be found not only in Europe but in the Ancient Near East.

Contents

Etymology

History

Ancient period

Medieval period

Early modern period

18th and 19th centuries

20th and 21st centuries

In popular culture

References

Bibliography

6 External links

Etymology

It is most commonly believed that the term grimoire originated from the Old French word grammaire, which had initially been used to refer to all books written in Latin. By the 18th century, the term had gained its now common usage in France and had begun to be used to refer purely to books of magic, which Owen Davies presumed was because “many of them continued to circulate in Latin manuscripts”.

The term grimoire also later developed into a figure of speech amongst the French indicating something that was hard to understand. It was only in the 19th century, with the increasing interest in occultism amongst the British following the publication of Francis Barrett’s The Magus (1801), that the term entered the English language in reference to books of magic.

History

Ancient period

The earliest known written magical incantations come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), where they have been found inscribed on various cuneiform clay tablets excavated by archaeologists from the city of Uruk and dated to between the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.

The ancient Egyptians also employed magical incantations, which have been found inscribed on various amulets and other items. The Egyptian magical system, known as heka, was greatly altered and enhanced after the Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great, invaded Egypt in 332 BCE.

Under the next three centuries of Hellenistic Egypt, the Coptic writing system evolved, and the Library of Alexandria was opened, and this likely had an influence upon books of magic, with the trend on known incantations switching from simple health and protection charms to more specific things, such as financial success and sexual fulfillment.

It was also around this time that the legendary figure of Hermes Trismegistus developed as a conflation of the Egyptian god Thoth and the Greek Hermes; this figure was associated with both writing and magic, and therefore of books on magic.

The ancient Greeks and Romans believed that books on magic were invented by the Persians, with the 1st-century CE writer Pliny the Elder stating that magic had been first discovered by the ancient philosopher Zoroaster around the year 6347 BCE but that it was only written down in the 5th century BCE by the magician Osthanes—his claims are not, however, supported by modern historians.

The ancient Jewish people were also often viewed as being knowledgeable in magic, which, according to legend, they had learned from Moses, who himself had learned it in Egypt. Indeed, amongst many ancient writers, Moses himself was seen as an Egyptian rather than a Jew, and two manuscripts likely dating to the 4th century, both of which purport to be the legendary eighth Book of Moses (the first five being the initial books in the Biblical Old Testament), present him as a polytheist who explained how to conjure gods and subdue demons.

Meanwhile, there is definite evidence of grimoires being used by certain, particularly Gnostic, sects of early Christianity; in the Book of Enoch found within the Dead Sea Scrolls for instance, there is various information on astrology and the angels. In possible connection with the Book of Enoch, the idea of Enoch and his great-grandson Noah having some involvement with books of magic given to them by angels continued in various forms through to the medieval period.

“Many of those in Ephesus who believed in Christianity now came and openly confessed their evil deeds. A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly. When they calculated the value of the scrolls, the total came to fifty thousand drachmas. In this way the word of the Lord spread widely and grew in power.”

Acts 19, c. 1st century

Israelite King Solomon was a Biblical figure also associated with magic and sorcery in the ancient world. The 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian Josephus mentioned a book circulating under the name of Solomon that contained incantations for summoning demons and described how a Jew called Eleazar used it to cure cases of possession. The book may have been the Testament of Solomon but was more probably a different work.

The pseudepigraphic Testament of Solomon is one of the oldest magical texts. It is a Greek manuscript attributed to Solomon and likely written in either Babylonia or Egypt sometime in the first five centuries CE, over a thousand years after Solomon’s death. The work tells of the building of The Temple and relates that construction was hampered by demons until the angel Michael gave the king a magical ring. The ring, engraved with the Seal of Solomon, had the power to bind demons from doing harm. Solomon used it to lock certain demons within jars and commanded others to do his bidding, although eventually, according to the Testament, he was tempted into worshipping “false gods”, such as Moloch, Baal, and Rapha. Subsequently, after losing favor with God, King Solomon wrote the work as both a warning and a guide to the reader.

Notwithstanding the accounts of Biblical figures like Moses, Enoch and Solomon being associated with magical practices, when Christianity became the dominant faith of the Roman Empire, the early Church frowned upon the propagation of books on magic, connecting it with paganism, and burned books of magic. The New Testament records that St. Paul had called for the burning of magic and pagan books in the city of Ephesus; this advice was adopted on a large scale after the Christian ascent to power. Even before Christianization, the Imperial Roman government had suppressed many pagan, Christian, philosophical, and divinatory texts that it viewed as threats to Roman authority, including those of the Greek mystic and mathematician Pythagoras.

Medieval period

In the Medieval period, the production of grimoires continued in Christendom, as well as amongst Jews and the followers of the newly founded Islamic faith. As the historian Owen Davies noted, “while the Christian Church was ultimately successful in defeating pagan worship it never managed to demarcate clearly and maintain a line of practice between religious devotion and magic,” and the use of such books on magic continued.

In Christianized Europe, the Church divided books of magic into two kinds; those that dealt with “natural magic” and those that dealt in “demonic magic”. The former was acceptable, because it was viewed as merely taking note of the powers in nature that were created by God; for instance, the Anglo-Saxon leechbooks, which contained simple spells designed for medicinal purposes, were tolerated. However, the latter, demonic magic was not acceptable, because it was believed that such magic did not come from God, but from the Devil and his demons – these grimoires dealt in such topics as necromancy, divination and demonology. Despite this, “there is ample evidence that the mediaeval clergy were the main practitioners of magic and therefore the owners, transcribers, and circulators of grimoires,” while several grimoires were actually attributed to various Popes.

An excerpt from Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, featuring various magical sigils (or סגולות, seguloth, in Hebrew)

One such Arabic grimoire devoted to astral magic, the 12th-century Ghâyat al-Hakîm fi’l-sihr, was later translated into Latin and circulated in Europe during the 13th century under the name of the Picatrix. Not all such grimoires of this era were based upon Arabic sources; the 13th-century the Sworn Book of Honorius, like the ancient Testament of Solomon before it, largely based upon the supposed teachings of the Biblical king Solomon and also included ideas such as prayers and a ritual circle, with the mystical purpose of having visions of God, Hell, and Purgatory and gaining much wisdom and knowledge as a result. Another was the Hebrew Sefer Raziel Ha-Malakh, translated in Europe as the Liber Razielis Archangeli.

A later book also claiming to have been written by Solomon was originally written in Greek during the 15th century, where it was known as the Magical Treatise of Solomon or the Little Key of the Whole Art of Hygromancy, Found by Several Craftmen and by the Holy Prophet Solomon. In the 16th century, this work had been translated into Latin and Italian, being renamed the Clavicula Salomonis, or the Key of Solomon.

Christendom during the Mediaeval Age, grimoires were written that were attributed to other ancient figures, thereby supposedly giving them a sense of authenticity because of their antiquity.

The German Abbot and occultist Trithemius (1462–1516) supposedly had in his possession a Book of Simon the Magician, based upon the New Testament figure of Simon Magus. Magus had been a contemporary of Jesus Christ’s and, like the Biblical Jesus, had supposedly performed miracles, but had been demonized by the Medieval Church as a devil worshipper and evil individual.

It was commonly believed by mediaeval people that other ancient figures, such as the poet Virgil, astronomer Ptolemy and philosopher Aristotle, had been involved in magic, and grimoires claiming to have been written by them were circulated. There were those who did not believe this; for instance, the Franciscan friar Roger Bacon (c. 1214–94) stated that books falsely claiming to be by ancient authors “ought to be prohibited by law”.

Early modern period

As the early modern period commenced in the late 15th century, many changes began to shock Europe that would have an effect on the production of grimoires; the historian Owen Davies classed the most important of these as being the Protestant Reformation and subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the witch-hunts and the advent of printing. The Renaissance saw the continuation of interest in magic that had been found in the Mediaeval period, and in this period, there was an increased interest in Hermeticism amongst occultists and ceremonial magicians in Europe, largely fueled by the 1471 translation of the ancient Corpus hermeticum into Latin by Marsilio Ficino (1433–99). Alongside this, there was also a rise in interest in a form of Jewish mysticism known as the Kabbalah, which was spread across the continent by Pico Della Mirandola and Johannes Reuchlin.

The most important magician of the Renaissance was Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535), who widely studied various occult topics and earlier grimoires and eventually published his own, the Three Books of Occult Philosophy, in 1533.

A similar figure was the Swiss magician known as Paracelsus (1493–1541), who published Of the Supreme Mysteries of Nature, in which he emphasized the distinction between good and bad magic.

A third such individual at the time was Johann Georg Faust, upon whom several pieces of later literature were written, such as Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus that portrayed him as consulting with demons.

The idea of demonology had remained strong in the Renaissance, and several demonological grimoires were published, including The Fourth Book of Occult Philosophy, which falsely claimed to having been authored by Agrippa, and the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, which listed 69 different demons.

To counter this, the Roman Catholic Church authorized the production of many works of exorcism, the rituals of which were often very similar to those of demonic conjuration. Alongside these demonological works, grimoires on natural magic also continued to be produced, including Magia naturalis, written by Giambattista Della Porta (1535–1615).

Man inscribed in a pentagram, from Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa’s De Occulta Philosophia (Eng., Three Books of Occult Philosophy). The signs on the perimeter are astrological.

The advent of printing in Europe meant that books could be mass-produced for the first time and could reach an ever-growing literate audience. Amongst the earliest books to be printed were magical texts; the nóminas were one example of this, consisting of prayers to the saints used as talismans.

It was particularly in Protestant countries, such as Switzerland and the German states, which were not under the domination of the Roman Catholic Church, where such grimoires were published. Despite the advent of print however, handwritten grimoires remained highly valued, as they were believed to contain inherent magical powers within them, and they continued to be produced.

Increasing availability to people lower down the social scale and women began to have access to books on magic; this was often incorporated into the popular folk magic of the average people, and in particular, that of the cunning folk, who were professionally involved in folk magic.

These works also left Europe and were imported to those parts of Latin America controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese empires and the parts of North America controlled by the British and French empires.

Throughout this period, the Inquisition, a Roman Catholic organization, had organized the mass suppression of peoples and beliefs that they considered heretical.

In many cases, grimoires were found in the heretics’ possessions and destroyed.

In 1599, the church published the Indexes of Prohibited Books, in which many grimoires were listed as forbidden, including several mediaeval ones, such as the Key of Solomon, which were still popular.

In Christendom, there also began to develop a widespread fear of witchcraft, which was believed to be Satanic in nature, and the subsequent hysteria, known as the Witch Hunt, caused the death of around 40,000 people, most of whom were women.

Sometimes, those found with grimoires, particularly of a demonological nature, were prosecuted and dealt with as witches, but in most cases, those accused had no access to such books.

The European nation that proved the exception to this, however, was the highly literate Iceland, where a third of the 134 witch trials held involved people who had owned grimoires.

By the end of the Early Modern period and the beginning of the Enlightenment, many European governments brought in laws prohibiting many superstitious beliefs in an attempt to bring an end to the Witch Hunt; this would invariably affect the release of grimoires.

Meanwhile, Hermeticism and the Kabbalah would influence the creation of a mystical philosophy known as Rosicrucianism, which first appeared in the early 17th century, when two pamphlets detailing the existence of the mysterious Rosicrucian group were published in Germany. These claimed that Rosicrucianism had originated with a medieval figure known as Christian Rosenkreuz, who had founded the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross; however, there was no evidence for the existence of Rosenkreuz or the Brotherhood.

18th and 19th centuries

“Emperor Lucifer, master of all the rebel spirits, I beg you to favor me in the call that I am making to your grand minister LUCIFUGÉ ROFOCALE, desiring to make a pact with him; I beg you also, prince Beelzebub to protect me in my undertaking. O count Astarot! Be favorable to me, and make it so that this night the grand Lucifege appears to me in human form, and without any bad odor, and that he accords to me, by the pact that I am going to present to him, all the riches I need.”

From the Grand Grimoire.

The 18th century saw the rise of the Enlightenment, a movement devoted to science and rationalism, predominantly amongst the ruling classes. However, amongst much of Europe, belief in magic and witchcraft persisted, as did the witch trials in certain areas. Certain governments did try and crack down on magicians and fortune tellers particularly that of France, where the police viewed them as social pests who took money from the gullible, often in a search for treasure. In doing so, they confiscated many grimoires.

It was also in France that a new form of printing developed, the Bibliothèque bleue, and many grimoires published through this circulated amongst an ever-growing percentage of the populace, in particular the Grand Albert, the Petit Albert (1782), the Grimoire du Pape Honorious and the Enchiridion Leonis Papae. The Petit Albert in particular contained a wide variety of different forms of magic, for instance, dealing in both simple charms for ailments along with more complex things such as the instructions for making a Hand of Glory.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, following the French Revolution of 1789, a hugely influential grimoire was published under the title of the Grand Grimoire, which was considered particularly powerful, because it involved conjuring and making a pact with the devil’s chief minister, Lucifugé Rofocale, in order to gain wealth from him. A new version of this grimoire was later published under the title of the Dragon rouge and was available for sale in many Parisian bookstores.

Similar books published in France at the time included the Black Pullet and the Grimoirium Verum. The Black Pullet, probably authored in late-18th-century Rome or France, differs from the typical grimoires in that it does not claim to be a manuscript from antiquity but told by a man who was a member of Napoleon’s armed expeditionary forces in Egypt.

The widespread availability of such printed grimoires in France—despite the opposition of both the rationalists and the church—spread to neighboring countries such as Spain and Germany.

In Switzerland, the city of Geneva was commonly associated with the occult at the time, particularly by Catholics, because it had been a stronghold of Protestantism, and many of those interested in the esoteric travelled from their own Roman Catholic nations to Switzerland to purchase grimoires or to study with occultists.

Soon, grimoires appeared that involved Catholic saints within them; one such example that appeared during the 19th century that became relatively popular, particularly in Spain, was the Libro de San Cipriano, or The Book of St. Ciprian, which falsely claimed to date from c. 1000. Like most grimoires of this period, it dealt with many things including how to discover treasure.

Title page of the 1880 New York edition of The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses

In Germany, with the increased interest in folklore during the 19th century, many historians took an interest in magic and in grimoires. Several published extracts of such grimoires in their own books on the history of magic, thereby helping to further propagate them. Perhaps the most notable of these was the Protestant pastor Georg Conrad Horst (1779–1832), who from 1821 to 1826, published a six-volume collection of magical texts in which he studied grimoires as a peculiarity of the Mediaeval mindset.

Another scholar of the time interested in grimoires, the antiquarian bookseller Johann Scheible, first published the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, two influential magical texts that claimed to have been written by the ancient Jewish figure Moses.

The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses were amongst the works that later spread to the countries of Scandinavia, where, in Danish and Swedish, grimoires were known as black books and were commonly found amongst members of the army.

In Britain, new grimoires continued to be produced throughout the 18th century, such as Ebenezer Sibly’s A New and Complete Illustration of the Celestial Science of Astrology.

In the last decades of that century, London experienced a revival of interest in the occult, and this was only further propagated when Francis Barrett published The Magus in 1801.

The Magus contained many things taken from older grimoires, particularly those of Cornelius Agrippa, and while not achieving initial popularity upon release, gradually became a particularly influential text.

One of Barrett’s pupils, John Parkin, created his own handwritten grimoire, The Grand Oracle of Heaven, or, The Art of Divine Magic, although it was never actually published, largely because Britain at the time was at war with France, and grimoires were commonly associated with the French. The only writer to publish British grimoires widely in the early 19th century, Robert Cross Smith, released The Philosophical Merlin (1822) and The Astrologer of the Nineteenth Century (1825), but neither sold well.

In the late 19th century, several of these texts (including the Abra-Melin text and the Key of Solomon) were reclaimed by para-Masonic magical organizations, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and the Ordo Templi Orientis.

20th and 21st centuries

The Secret Grimoire of Turiel claims to have been written in the 16th century, but no copy older than 1927 has been produced.

A modern grimoire is the Simon Necronomicon, named after a fictional book of magic in the stories of H. P. Lovecraft and inspired by Babylonian mythology and the “Ars Goetia”, a section in the Lesser Key of Solomon that concerns the summoning of demons. The Azoëtia of Andrew D. Chumbley has been described as a modern grimoire.

The neopagan religion of Wicca publicly appeared in the 1940s, and Gerald Gardner introduced the Book of Shadows as a Wiccan grimoire.

In the first decade of the 21st century, an assembly of practitioners of esoteric magic, known as the Grey Council, founded the world’s first recognized school of wizardry in California, USA. Incorporated on 14 March 2004, the Grey School of Wizardry is a non-denominational, secular non-profit educational institution. The school received a 501(c) (3) tax exemption from the Internal Revenue Service on September 27, 2007. The school’s headmaster Oberon Zell-Ravenheart wrote and compiled the school’s Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard (New Page, 2004) and the sequel Companion for the Apprentice Wizard (New Page 2006).

In popular culture

The term Grimoire commonly serves as an alternative name for a spell book or tome of magical knowledge in fantasy fiction and role-playing games. The most famous fictional Grimoire is the Necronomicon, a creation of H. P. Lovecraft.

In the film The Sorcerer this type of book was called the Incantus.

In the television series Charmed, the Grimoire is known as the evil equivalent of the Halliwell sisters’ Book of Shadows. In the television series Witches of East End, a Grimoire is a book of spells used by the Beauchamp witches in the show. In the television series The Vampire Diaries and its spin-off The Originals, a Grimoire is a witch’s record of all of her/his spells, rituals, potions, and herbs.

The central book of spells in the Disney animated fantasy adventure series Gargoyles, the Grimorum Arcanorum, is an ancient book of magic used by Demona and David Xanatos in various schemes throughout the series’ storyline. In the video game Nier, one of the main characters is a talking grimoire who is usually referred to as Weiss, despite his protests that his companions should use his full title, Grimoire Weiss.

Rose Lalonde from Homestuck had a Grimoire for Summoning the Zoologically Dubious, which she alchemized together with her Needlewands to create the Thorns of Oglogoth.

In Gregory Maguire’s series of books set in the Land of Oz: Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, Son of a Witch, A Lion Among Men, and Out of Oz referred to together as The Wicked Years, there is a book of spells and other magical arcana called the Grimmerie. The name is an example of Maguire’s subtle changing of familiar words that help to remind readers that while the place they read about is mostly familiar, it is also ever so slightly skewed.

In the 2014 video game Destiny, Grimoire cards are obtained by the player by playing different game modes. The main purpose of the Grimoire is to give player a little bit of background lore relating to the destiny universe.

Levels of Life are being written by historian Theresa J Morris aka TJ Morris to serve others on planet earth. The main reason that Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris shares her information with others is to usher in the Ascension Age as an Era Cop so that others may enjoy health and prosperity for all while on the planet. TJ shares that we are ETs just visiting this planet.

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References

Morris, Theresa J (2009) Ascension Age, 2012 & Beyond, Timely Manor Books, ISBN

Butler, E. M. (1979). “The Solomonic Cycle”. Ritual Magic (Reprint ed.). CUP Archive. ISBN 0-521-295

Davies, Owen (2009). Grimoires: A History of Magic Books. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 9780199204519. OCLC 244766270.53-X.

Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (2006). “Grimoire”. The Encyclopedia of Magic and Alchemy. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1-4381-3000-7.

Malchus, Marius (2011). The Secret Grimoire of Turiel. Theophania Publishing. ISBN 978-1-926842-80-6.

Semple, Gavin (1994) ‘The Azoëtia – reviewed by Gavin Semple’, Starfire Vol. I, No. 2, 1994, p. 194.

Davies, Owen (4 April 2008). “Owen Davies’s top 10 grimoires”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

Myash, Jeff, (March 2, 2011), “This spells trouble! Real-life Dumbledore opens world’s first wizard school”, MailOnline, Retrieved October 13, 2013.

Bibliography

Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide ISBN 978-0-557-40127-7

ID: 14356281

Category: Religion & Spirituality

Description: A woman ET Contactee shares information that was part of her spiritual path. The Book becomes her book of shadows to remember how that of the past may haunt the future based on information kept for future reference that was life changing.

Publisher: TJ Morris ACO LLC

Copyright Year: © 2014

Language: English

Keywords: aliens, UFO, Contactee, Ascension, Metaphysics, Esoteric, Trance Channel

License: Standard Copyright License

External links

Look up grimoire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Internet Sacred Text Archives: Grimoires

Digitized Grimoires

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Theresa J Morris Biography

BIO THERESA J. MORRIS Theresa J Morris, known as TJ Morris ~ Theresa J Morris, author, entrepreneur, radio host, advocate for the working class net citizens.  Theresa’s books are available through many websites including her own theresajmorris.com.  Theresa is a former toastmaster member and speaker on various paranormal phenomena.   TJ Morris shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including branding and product design for entrepreneurs and inventors. Being an Artist and Author TJ began her web presence as a syndicated columnist and graduated to a publisher and webmaster. As a result TJ has launched several brands and associations including the ACE and ACO in the world. TJ has become the advocate for various causes including civil rights while sharing ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. TJ Morris Media is a home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, entrepreneurs, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Theresa’s background is in investigations and getting the unbiased facts as a syndicated columnist. Her passion is ancient history and new conscious thought research of the critical mass mind and internet.  TJ now shares TJ Morris dba ACIR in American Culture Internet Relations in communications, education, and information in various topics including ancient history and forteana (anomalous phenomena). Paranormal Romance based on ancient past and new thought teachings with metaphysics is a passion of her writing interests ACE Paranormal Investigations

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ACIR–ACE Metaphysical Institute, a non-denominational, non-profit educational institution. We share spiritual educational awareness for visual and performing arts and entertainment via communication on the internet using a community online practicing skills (COPS) core groups weekly.

We are set up to work with our founder Theresa J Morris as TJ Morris dba ACIR and ACE Nonprofit Inc. both of the United States of America.

We meet on the TJ Morris Radio Network. TJ Morris tm ACIR sm. American Culture International Relations with ACE Folklife Archivists Education Research Association (ACE-ERA), ACE Metaphysical Institute, Ascension Center Organization in spiritual science and paranormal topics of discussion.

We are interested in ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. We share as students, teachers, Life Coaches, Agents, Consultants, Organizers, Webmasters, Hosts, Writers, Authors, Copyrighters, and Editors.

We vary in our similar interests groups as independent contractors and affiliates. Many of us own our own small business and have websites while doing our own social media online.

We are content providers as bloggers, and we meet on radio shows weekly. We welcome other radio show hosts, and producers.

ACE Nonprofit Inc. Founder is Theresa J Morris, Radio Show Host, Author-Speaker, Entrepreneur – ACE Folklife Historian – Book Author & Promoter for her ACO UFO Authors Club.

Era Cop Times News created by Theresa J Morris for her friends in cyberspace. Theresa is an author, entrepreneur and parapsychologist. Parapsychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the investigation of purportedly psychic phenomena, as clairvoyance, extrasensory perception, telepathy, and the like. TJ is a psychic medium who shares Consciousness & Soul. Love is the main ingredients as essence and energy of who and what we are as self. TJ is a Tarot Reader Life Coach and Spiritual Counselor. TJ is also an agent, consultant, and organizer and owns a small business in the USA. Theresa J Thurmond Morris, Theresa J Morris shortened her name as a brand to TJ Morris. Born Theresa Janette Thurmond, Monroe, Louisiana, USA, December 26, 1951 married, had four daughters all born in Texas. Became a private investigator, legal investigator, then worked for DOD, DON and GS status for US government. Studied arson, fraud, subrogation, personnel information security, and obtained security certificates before graduating U.S. Naval Hospital Corps School. Became interested in psychology, metaphysics, theology, neuroscience in 1980s and moved to Hawaii. Became a President CEO of a corporation and developed a line of clothing, handbags, small leather goods, shoes, and stationary items in cuercus suber oak as eco fashion 1990-1994. Founded the first Ascension Center and Psychic Network 1989 -1994. Transferred to Fort Hood, Killeen, TX where she met her husband Thomas R Morris, and US Army-Retired. Drove commercial semi 18 wheeler truck over the road all 48 lower states before becoming an author and blogger 2004-2014. Became an UFOlogist 2007 writing for UFO Digest. Author of Books 2007-2014 include Roswell Encounters, Roswell Connection, Taken Up, Enchanted Development, Theresa of Ascension, Knowing Cosmology, ACO Alien Contact Organization. TJ became a Radio Host June 3, 2012 as TJ Morris ET Radio and Cosmos Connection and has panel discussions and interviews authors. TJ is a motivational speaker in paranormal and spiritual communities with ET UFO, OBE, NDE, Dreams, and conscious experience shares. TJ has had many experiences with energy as a receiver of information as a keeper of the flame and became an archivist with her first book as Theresa Keeper of the Flame kept inside the book Ascension Ancient Mystery schools Psychic Awakening Classes which she is caretaker of the only copy as her gremremgremoire to be passed down to her four daughters.. . Ascension Ancient Mysteries shares as ACE Metaphysical Institute and Ascension Center Energetics for ACO and ACE as a joint venture in cyberspace culture sharing a universal world view with TJ Morris at the helm as Commander for radio shows as TJ Morris ET.

Theresa of Ascension – Ascension Ancient Mystery Schools – Psychic Awakening Classes & Oher things for 2012 & Beyond – The Ascension Age – Magic times of the Mind. Soul Essence Consciousness and Neuro Science. Parapsychology has been part of a book of practicing communities online since TJ began sharing the Ascension Center in 1993. TJ knew what she needed to share communication to the world. It was important to share a new world view. This was known as the Ascension Age, Aquarian Age, and Golden Age of Communication & Cosmology.

Books Grimoire

Books of magic and for the operating system term, see Source Mage GNU/Linux.

Question book-new.svg

Design for an amulet comes from a central source the Black Pullet grimoire.

A grimoire /ɡrɪmˈwɑr/ is a textbook of magic.

Such books typically include instructions on how to create magical objects like talismans and amulets, how to perform magical spells, charms and divination and also how to summon or invoke supernatural entities such as angels, spirits, and demons.

In many cases, the books themselves are also believed to be imbued with magical powers, though in many cultures, other sacred texts that are not grimoires, such as the Bible, have also been believed to have supernatural properties intrinsically; in this manner while all books on magic could be thought of as grimoires, not all magical books should.

While the term grimoire is originally European and many Europeans throughout history, particularly ceremonial magicians and cunning folk, have made use of grimoires, the historian Owen Davies noted that similar books can be found all across the world, ranging from Jamaica to Sumatra, and he also noted that the first grimoires could be found not only in Europe but in the Ancient Near East.

Contents

Etymology

History

Ancient period

Medieval period

Early modern period

18th and 19th centuries

20th and 21st centuries

In popular culture

References

Bibliography

6 External links

Etymology

It is most commonly believed that the term grimoire originated from the Old French word grammaire, which had initially been used to refer to all books written in Latin. By the 18th century, the term had gained its now common usage in France and had begun to be used to refer purely to books of magic, which Owen Davies presumed was because “many of them continued to circulate in Latin manuscripts”.

The term grimoire also later developed into a figure of speech amongst the French indicating something that was hard to understand. It was only in the 19th century, with the increasing interest in occultism amongst the British following the publication of Francis Barrett’s The Magus (1801), that the term entered the English language in reference to books of magic.

History

Ancient period

The earliest known written magical incantations come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), where they have been found inscribed on various cuneiform clay tablets excavated by archaeologists from the city of Uruk and dated to between the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.

The ancient Egyptians also employed magical incantations, which have been found inscribed on various amulets and other items. The Egyptian magical system, known as heka, was greatly altered and enhanced after the Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great, invaded Egypt in 332 BCE.

Under the next three centuries of Hellenistic Egypt, the Coptic writing system evolved, and the Library of Alexandria was opened, and this likely had an influence upon books of magic, with the trend on known incantations switching from simple health and protection charms to more specific things, such as financial success and sexual fulfillment.

It was also around this time that the legendary figure of Hermes Trismegistus developed as a conflation of the Egyptian god Thoth and the Greek Hermes; this figure was associated with both writing and magic, and therefore of books on magic.

The ancient Greeks and Romans believed that books on magic were invented by the Persians, with the 1st-century CE writer Pliny the Elder stating that magic had been first discovered by the ancient philosopher Zoroaster around the year 6347 BCE but that it was only written down in the 5th century BCE by the magician Osthanes—his claims are not, however, supported by modern historians.

The ancient Jewish people were also often viewed as being knowledgeable in magic, which, according to legend, they had learned from Moses, who himself had learned it in Egypt. Indeed, amongst many ancient writers, Moses himself was seen as an Egyptian rather than a Jew, and two manuscripts likely dating to the 4th century, both of which purport to be the legendary eighth Book of Moses (the first five being the initial books in the Biblical Old Testament), present him as a polytheist who explained how to conjure gods and subdue demons.

Meanwhile, there is definite evidence of grimoires being used by certain, particularly Gnostic, sects of early Christianity; in the Book of Enoch found within the Dead Sea Scrolls for instance, there is various information on astrology and the angels. In possible connection with the Book of Enoch, the idea of Enoch and his great-grandson Noah having some involvement with books of magic given to them by angels continued in various forms through to the medieval period.

“Many of those in Ephesus who believed in Christianity now came and openly confessed their evil deeds. A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly. When they calculated the value of the scrolls, the total came to fifty thousand drachmas. In this way the word of the Lord spread widely and grew in power.”

Acts 19, c. 1st century

Israelite King Solomon was a Biblical figure also associated with magic and sorcery in the ancient world. The 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian Josephus mentioned a book circulating under the name of Solomon that contained incantations for summoning demons and described how a Jew called Eleazar used it to cure cases of possession. The book may have been the Testament of Solomon but was more probably a different work.

The pseudepigraphic Testament of Solomon is one of the oldest magical texts. It is a Greek manuscript attributed to Solomon and likely written in either Babylonia or Egypt sometime in the first five centuries CE, over a thousand years after Solomon’s death. The work tells of the building of The Temple and relates that construction was hampered by demons until the angel Michael gave the king a magical ring. The ring, engraved with the Seal of Solomon, had the power to bind demons from doing harm. Solomon used it to lock certain demons within jars and commanded others to do his bidding, although eventually, according to the Testament, he was tempted into worshipping “false gods”, such as Moloch, Baal, and Rapha. Subsequently, after losing favor with God, King Solomon wrote the work as both a warning and a guide to the reader.

Notwithstanding the accounts of Biblical figures like Moses, Enoch and Solomon being associated with magical practices, when Christianity became the dominant faith of the Roman Empire, the early Church frowned upon the propagation of books on magic, connecting it with paganism, and burned books of magic. The New Testament records that St. Paul had called for the burning of magic and pagan books in the city of Ephesus; this advice was adopted on a large scale after the Christian ascent to power. Even before Christianization, the Imperial Roman government had suppressed many pagan, Christian, philosophical, and divinatory texts that it viewed as threats to Roman authority, including those of the Greek mystic and mathematician Pythagoras.

Medieval period

In the Medieval period, the production of grimoires continued in Christendom, as well as amongst Jews and the followers of the newly founded Islamic faith. As the historian Owen Davies noted, “while the Christian Church was ultimately successful in defeating pagan worship it never managed to demarcate clearly and maintain a line of practice between religious devotion and magic,” and the use of such books on magic continued.

In Christianized Europe, the Church divided books of magic into two kinds; those that dealt with “natural magic” and those that dealt in “demonic magic”. The former was acceptable, because it was viewed as merely taking note of the powers in nature that were created by God; for instance, the Anglo-Saxon leechbooks, which contained simple spells designed for medicinal purposes, were tolerated. However, the latter, demonic magic was not acceptable, because it was believed that such magic did not come from God, but from the Devil and his demons – these grimoires dealt in such topics as necromancy, divination and demonology. Despite this, “there is ample evidence that the mediaeval clergy were the main practitioners of magic and therefore the owners, transcribers, and circulators of grimoires,” while several grimoires were actually attributed to various Popes.

An excerpt from Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, featuring various magical sigils (or סגולות, seguloth, in Hebrew)

One such Arabic grimoire devoted to astral magic, the 12th-century Ghâyat al-Hakîm fi’l-sihr, was later translated into Latin and circulated in Europe during the 13th century under the name of the Picatrix. Not all such grimoires of this era were based upon Arabic sources; the 13th-century the Sworn Book of Honorius, like the ancient Testament of Solomon before it, largely based upon the supposed teachings of the Biblical king Solomon and also included ideas such as prayers and a ritual circle, with the mystical purpose of having visions of God, Hell, and Purgatory and gaining much wisdom and knowledge as a result. Another was the Hebrew Sefer Raziel Ha-Malakh, translated in Europe as the Liber Razielis Archangeli.

A later book also claiming to have been written by Solomon was originally written in Greek during the 15th century, where it was known as the Magical Treatise of Solomon or the Little Key of the Whole Art of Hygromancy, Found by Several Craftmen and by the Holy Prophet Solomon. In the 16th century, this work had been translated into Latin and Italian, being renamed the Clavicula Salomonis, or the Key of Solomon.

Christendom during the Mediaeval Age, grimoires were written that were attributed to other ancient figures, thereby supposedly giving them a sense of authenticity because of their antiquity.

The German Abbot and occultist Trithemius (1462–1516) supposedly had in his possession a Book of Simon the Magician, based upon the New Testament figure of Simon Magus. Magus had been a contemporary of Jesus Christ’s and, like the Biblical Jesus, had supposedly performed miracles, but had been demonized by the Medieval Church as a devil worshipper and evil individual.

It was commonly believed by mediaeval people that other ancient figures, such as the poet Virgil, astronomer Ptolemy and philosopher Aristotle, had been involved in magic, and grimoires claiming to have been written by them were circulated. There were those who did not believe this; for instance, the Franciscan friar Roger Bacon (c. 1214–94) stated that books falsely claiming to be by ancient authors “ought to be prohibited by law”.

Early modern period

As the early modern period commenced in the late 15th century, many changes began to shock Europe that would have an effect on the production of grimoires; the historian Owen Davies classed the most important of these as being the Protestant Reformation and subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the witch-hunts and the advent of printing. The Renaissance saw the continuation of interest in magic that had been found in the Mediaeval period, and in this period, there was an increased interest in Hermeticism amongst occultists and ceremonial magicians in Europe, largely fueled by the 1471 translation of the ancient Corpus hermeticum into Latin by Marsilio Ficino (1433–99). Alongside this, there was also a rise in interest in a form of Jewish mysticism known as the Kabbalah, which was spread across the continent by Pico Della Mirandola and Johannes Reuchlin.

The most important magician of the Renaissance was Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535), who widely studied various occult topics and earlier grimoires and eventually published his own, the Three Books of Occult Philosophy, in 1533.

A similar figure was the Swiss magician known as Paracelsus (1493–1541), who published Of the Supreme Mysteries of Nature, in which he emphasized the distinction between good and bad magic.

A third such individual at the time was Johann Georg Faust, upon whom several pieces of later literature were written, such as Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus that portrayed him as consulting with demons.

The idea of demonology had remained strong in the Renaissance, and several demonological grimoires were published, including The Fourth Book of Occult Philosophy, which falsely claimed to having been authored by Agrippa, and the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, which listed 69 different demons.

To counter this, the Roman Catholic Church authorized the production of many works of exorcism, the rituals of which were often very similar to those of demonic conjuration. Alongside these demonological works, grimoires on natural magic also continued to be produced, including Magia naturalis, written by Giambattista Della Porta (1535–1615).

Man inscribed in a pentagram, from Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa’s De Occulta Philosophia (Eng., Three Books of Occult Philosophy). The signs on the perimeter are astrological.

The advent of printing in Europe meant that books could be mass-produced for the first time and could reach an ever-growing literate audience. Amongst the earliest books to be printed were magical texts; the nóminas were one example of this, consisting of prayers to the saints used as talismans.

It was particularly in Protestant countries, such as Switzerland and the German states, which were not under the domination of the Roman Catholic Church, where such grimoires were published. Despite the advent of print however, handwritten grimoires remained highly valued, as they were believed to contain inherent magical powers within them, and they continued to be produced.

Increasing availability to people lower down the social scale and women began to have access to books on magic; this was often incorporated into the popular folk magic of the average people, and in particular, that of the cunning folk, who were professionally involved in folk magic.

These works also left Europe and were imported to those parts of Latin America controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese empires and the parts of North America controlled by the British and French empires.

Throughout this period, the Inquisition, a Roman Catholic organization, had organized the mass suppression of peoples and beliefs that they considered heretical.

In many cases, grimoires were found in the heretics’ possessions and destroyed.

In 1599, the church published the Indexes of Prohibited Books, in which many grimoires were listed as forbidden, including several mediaeval ones, such as the Key of Solomon, which were still popular.

In Christendom, there also began to develop a widespread fear of witchcraft, which was believed to be Satanic in nature, and the subsequent hysteria, known as the Witch Hunt, caused the death of around 40,000 people, most of whom were women.

Sometimes, those found with grimoires, particularly of a demonological nature, were prosecuted and dealt with as witches, but in most cases, those accused had no access to such books.

The European nation that proved the exception to this, however, was the highly literate Iceland, where a third of the 134 witch trials held involved people who had owned grimoires.

By the end of the Early Modern period and the beginning of the Enlightenment, many European governments brought in laws prohibiting many superstitious beliefs in an attempt to bring an end to the Witch Hunt; this would invariably affect the release of grimoires.

Meanwhile, Hermeticism and the Kabbalah would influence the creation of a mystical philosophy known as Rosicrucianism, which first appeared in the early 17th century, when two pamphlets detailing the existence of the mysterious Rosicrucian group were published in Germany. These claimed that Rosicrucianism had originated with a medieval figure known as Christian Rosenkreuz, who had founded the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross; however, there was no evidence for the existence of Rosenkreuz or the Brotherhood.

18th and 19th centuries

“Emperor Lucifer, master of all the rebel spirits, I beg you to favor me in the call that I am making to your grand minister LUCIFUGÉ ROFOCALE, desiring to make a pact with him; I beg you also, prince Beelzebub to protect me in my undertaking. O count Astarot! Be favorable to me, and make it so that this night the grand Lucifege appears to me in human form, and without any bad odor, and that he accords to me, by the pact that I am going to present to him, all the riches I need.”

From the Grand Grimoire.

The 18th century saw the rise of the Enlightenment, a movement devoted to science and rationalism, predominantly amongst the ruling classes. However, amongst much of Europe, belief in magic and witchcraft persisted, as did the witch trials in certain areas. Certain governments did try and crack down on magicians and fortune tellers particularly that of France, where the police viewed them as social pests who took money from the gullible, often in a search for treasure. In doing so, they confiscated many grimoires.

It was also in France that a new form of printing developed, the Bibliothèque bleue, and many grimoires published through this circulated amongst an ever-growing percentage of the populace, in particular the Grand Albert, the Petit Albert (1782), the Grimoire du Pape Honorious and the Enchiridion Leonis Papae. The Petit Albert in particular contained a wide variety of different forms of magic, for instance, dealing in both simple charms for ailments along with more complex things such as the instructions for making a Hand of Glory.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, following the French Revolution of 1789, a hugely influential grimoire was published under the title of the Grand Grimoire, which was considered particularly powerful, because it involved conjuring and making a pact with the devil’s chief minister, Lucifugé Rofocale, in order to gain wealth from him. A new version of this grimoire was later published under the title of the Dragon rouge and was available for sale in many Parisian bookstores.

Similar books published in France at the time included the Black Pullet and the Grimoirium Verum. The Black Pullet, probably authored in late-18th-century Rome or France, differs from the typical grimoires in that it does not claim to be a manuscript from antiquity but told by a man who was a member of Napoleon’s armed expeditionary forces in Egypt.

The widespread availability of such printed grimoires in France—despite the opposition of both the rationalists and the church—spread to neighboring countries such as Spain and Germany.

In Switzerland, the city of Geneva was commonly associated with the occult at the time, particularly by Catholics, because it had been a stronghold of Protestantism, and many of those interested in the esoteric travelled from their own Roman Catholic nations to Switzerland to purchase grimoires or to study with occultists.

Soon, grimoires appeared that involved Catholic saints within them; one such example that appeared during the 19th century that became relatively popular, particularly in Spain, was the Libro de San Cipriano, or The Book of St. Ciprian, which falsely claimed to date from c. 1000. Like most grimoires of this period, it dealt with many things including how to discover treasure.

Title page of the 1880 New York edition of The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses

In Germany, with the increased interest in folklore during the 19th century, many historians took an interest in magic and in grimoires. Several published extracts of such grimoires in their own books on the history of magic, thereby helping to further propagate them. Perhaps the most notable of these was the Protestant pastor Georg Conrad Horst (1779–1832), who from 1821 to 1826, published a six-volume collection of magical texts in which he studied grimoires as a peculiarity of the Mediaeval mindset.

Another scholar of the time interested in grimoires, the antiquarian bookseller Johann Scheible, first published the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, two influential magical texts that claimed to have been written by the ancient Jewish figure Moses.

The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses were amongst the works that later spread to the countries of Scandinavia, where, in Danish and Swedish, grimoires were known as black books and were commonly found amongst members of the army.

In Britain, new grimoires continued to be produced throughout the 18th century, such as Ebenezer Sibly’s A New and Complete Illustration of the Celestial Science of Astrology.

In the last decades of that century, London experienced a revival of interest in the occult, and this was only further propagated when Francis Barrett published The Magus in 1801.

The Magus contained many things taken from older grimoires, particularly those of Cornelius Agrippa, and while not achieving initial popularity upon release, gradually became a particularly influential text.

One of Barrett’s pupils, John Parkin, created his own handwritten grimoire, The Grand Oracle of Heaven, or, The Art of Divine Magic, although it was never actually published, largely because Britain at the time was at war with France, and grimoires were commonly associated with the French. The only writer to publish British grimoires widely in the early 19th century, Robert Cross Smith, released The Philosophical Merlin (1822) and The Astrologer of the Nineteenth Century (1825), but neither sold well.

In the late 19th century, several of these texts (including the Abra-Melin text and the Key of Solomon) were reclaimed by para-Masonic magical organizations, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and the Ordo Templi Orientis.

20th and 21st centuries

The Secret Grimoire of Turiel claims to have been written in the 16th century, but no copy older than 1927 has been produced.

A modern grimoire is the Simon Necronomicon, named after a fictional book of magic in the stories of H. P. Lovecraft and inspired by Babylonian mythology and the “Ars Goetia”, a section in the Lesser Key of Solomon that concerns the summoning of demons. The Azoëtia of Andrew D. Chumbley has been described as a modern grimoire.

The neopagan religion of Wicca publicly appeared in the 1940s, and Gerald Gardner introduced the Book of Shadows as a Wiccan grimoire.

In the first decade of the 21st century, an assembly of practitioners of esoteric magic, known as the Grey Council, founded the world’s first recognized school of wizardry in California, USA. Incorporated on 14 March 2004, the Grey School of Wizardry is a non-denominational, secular non-profit educational institution. The school received a 501(c) (3) tax exemption from the Internal Revenue Service on September 27, 2007. The school’s headmaster Oberon Zell-Ravenheart wrote and compiled the school’s Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard (New Page, 2004) and the sequel Companion for the Apprentice Wizard (New Page 2006).

In popular culture

The term Grimoire commonly serves as an alternative name for a spell book or tome of magical knowledge in fantasy fiction and role-playing games. The most famous fictional Grimoire is the Necronomicon, a creation of H. P. Lovecraft.

In the film The Sorcerer this type of book was called the Incantus.

In the television series Charmed, the Grimoire is known as the evil equivalent of the Halliwell sisters’ Book of Shadows. In the television series Witches of East End, a Grimoire is a book of spells used by the Beauchamp witches in the show. In the television series The Vampire Diaries and its spin-off The Originals, a Grimoire is a witch’s record of all of her/his spells, rituals, potions, and herbs.

The central book of spells in the Disney animated fantasy adventure series Gargoyles, the Grimorum Arcanorum, is an ancient book of magic used by Demona and David Xanatos in various schemes throughout the series’ storyline. In the video game Nier, one of the main characters is a talking grimoire who is usually referred to as Weiss, despite his protests that his companions should use his full title, Grimoire Weiss.

Rose Lalonde from Homestuck had a Grimoire for Summoning the Zoologically Dubious, which she alchemized together with her Needlewands to create the Thorns of Oglogoth.

In Gregory Maguire’s series of books set in the Land of Oz: Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, Son of a Witch, A Lion Among Men, and Out of Oz referred to together as The Wicked Years, there is a book of spells and other magical arcana called the Grimmerie. The name is an example of Maguire’s subtle changing of familiar words that help to remind readers that while the place they read about is mostly familiar, it is also ever so slightly skewed.

In the 2014 video game Destiny, Grimoire cards are obtained by the player by playing different game modes. The main purpose of the Grimoire is to give player a little bit of background lore relating to the destiny universe.

Levels of Life are being written by historian Theresa J Morris aka TJ Morris to serve others on planet earth. The main reason that Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris shares her information with others is to usher in the Ascension Age as an Era Cop so that others may enjoy health and prosperity for all while on the planet. TJ shares that we are ETs just visiting this planet.

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References

Morris, Theresa J (2009) Ascension Age, 2012 & Beyond, Timely Manor Books, ISBN

Butler, E. M. (1979). “The Solomonic Cycle”. Ritual Magic (Reprint ed.). CUP Archive. ISBN 0-521-295

Davies, Owen (2009). Grimoires: A History of Magic Books. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 9780199204519. OCLC 244766270.53-X.

Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (2006). “Grimoire”. The Encyclopedia of Magic and Alchemy. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1-4381-3000-7.

Malchus, Marius (2011). The Secret Grimoire of Turiel. Theophania Publishing. ISBN 978-1-926842-80-6.

Semple, Gavin (1994) ‘The Azoëtia – reviewed by Gavin Semple’, Starfire Vol. I, No. 2, 1994, p. 194.

Davies, Owen (4 April 2008). “Owen Davies’s top 10 grimoires”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

Myash, Jeff, (March 2, 2011), “This spells trouble! Real-life Dumbledore opens world’s first wizard school”, MailOnline, Retrieved October 13, 2013.

Bibliography

Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide ISBN 978-0-557-40127-7

ID: 14356281

Category: Religion & Spirituality

Description: A woman ET Contactee shares information that was part of her spiritual path. The Book becomes her book of shadows to remember how that of the past may haunt the future based on information kept for future reference that was life changing.

Publisher: TJ Morris ACO LLC

Copyright Year: © 2014

Language: English

Keywords: aliens, UFO, Contactee, Ascension, Metaphysics, Esoteric, Trance Channel

License: Standard Copyright License

External links

Look up grimoire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Internet Sacred Text Archives: Grimoires

Digitized Grimoires

Categories: GrimoiresEsotericismMagic (paranormal) Non-fiction genres

  • Inspirational Writing (Spiritual/Religious)
  • Memoirs/Personal Essay
  • Magazine Feature Article
  • Genre Short Story (Mystery, Romance, etc.)
  • Mainstream/Literary Short Story
  • Rhyming Poetry
  • Non-rhyming Poetry
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Theresa J Morris Biography

BIO THERESA J. MORRIS Theresa J Morris, known as TJ Morris ~ Theresa J Morris, author, entrepreneur, radio host, advocate for the working class net citizens.  Theresa’s books are available through many websites including her own theresajmorris.com.  Theresa is a former toastmaster member and speaker on various paranormal phenomena.   TJ Morris shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including branding and product design for entrepreneurs and inventors. Being an Artist and Author TJ began her web presence as a syndicated columnist and graduated to a publisher and webmaster. As a result TJ has launched several brands and associations including the ACE and ACO in the world. TJ has become the advocate for various causes including civil rights while sharing ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. TJ Morris Media is a home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, entrepreneurs, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Theresa’s background is in investigations and getting the unbiased facts as a syndicated columnist. Her passion is ancient history and new conscious thought research of the critical mass mind and internet.  TJ now shares TJ Morris dba ACIR in American Culture Internet Relations in communications, education, and information in various topics including ancient history and forteana (anomalous phenomena). Paranormal Romance based on ancient past and new thought teachings with metaphysics is a passion of her writing interests

Minutes for Ascension Center Education
Ancient Mystery Schools

United States of America, Monday, August 10, 2015 08:50

Members Sign In Sheet Phil Laing
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:
Welcome by Officers Janet Lessin
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:
Power Point Presentation TJ, Janet, Phil
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:
Introduction to Classes Janet & TJ
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:
Facilitator Phil Laing
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:

ASCENSION CENTER EDUCATIONAL ANCIENT WISDOM & NEW THOUGH TEACHINGS – Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris

Theresa J Morris, known as TJ Morris

Theresa J Morris, author, entrepreneur, radio host, advocate for the working class net citizens.

Theresa’s books are available through many websites including her own theresajmorris.com.

Theresa is a former toastmaster member and speaker on various paranormal phenomena.

TJ Morris shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including branding and product design for entrepreneurs and inventors. Being an Artist and Author TJ began her web presence as a syndicated columnist and graduated to a publisher and webmaster. As a result TJ has launched several brands and associations including the ACE and ACO in the world. TJ has become the advocate for various causes including civil rights while sharing ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. TJ Morris Media is a home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, entrepreneurs, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Theresa’s background is in investigations and getting the unbiased facts as a syndicated columnist. Her passion is ancient history and new conscious thought research of the critical mass mind and internet.

TJ now shares TJ Morris dba ACIR in American Culture Internet Relations in communications, education, and information in various topics including ancient history and forteana (anomalous phenomena). Paranormal Romance based on ancient past and new thought teachings with metaphysics is a passion of her writing interests.

Theresa J Morris is Author/Entrepreneur-Speaker – TJ Morris ET Radio Show Host.
Founding Director of ACIR-ACE-ACO Social Networking Internet Clubs. TJ Morris tm ACIR sm. Theresa’s Brand is known as TJ Morris dba ACIR. American author, radio host, and speaker who has had UFO sightings, CE5 Contact and has devoted her Life’s Work to sharing what she calls The Ascension Age with co-crafting and creating new spiritual education paths for the future. Theresa also known as TJ is a member of BMI. Theresa began her research in the human potential movement after NDE near death experiences. TJ shares her education and spiritual philosophy based on her experiences including UFO Sightings, ET Encounters and her continued research with friends who join her TJ Morris ACO Social Club. TJ Morris is the Talk Show Host of the TJ Morris ET Radio weekly. TJ has written several books including Cosmos Knowing Cosmology, Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Roswell Encounters, Alien UFO Story by TJ. Theresa of Ascension and others. TJ is now working with various small business entrepreneurs as a consultant. Tj’s work includes art, culture, education, social changes and a supports a new spiritual science movement for the Ascension Age as a “Family of Kindred Spirits.” TJ’s professional background is as a Private, Legal, and Government investigator, and
Investigative Reporter and blogger. TJ owns TJ Morris Hosting, Publishing, Radio.

About Theresa Morris

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Fostering educational excellence in spiritual fellowship growth, education, and continued research for the communication of truth. To promote student achievement in preparation of global competitiveness in communication online practicing skills. We specialize in art, culture, education, and research. We provide a spiritual gathering place online for private and group counseling, classes, seminars, publications, video tapes, and media of spiritual education, research, in products and services. Classes, events, radio shows, seminars, are formed to discuss workshop materials, revelations, teachings, and experiences of transformation in individuals. We do this through expansions in consciousness. We also share the healing of the planet and species with love and light in a trusting environment. Each member is continually supported in their spiritual journey and path of enlightenment. Each member is assisted in our community online as what we call the Internet to spiritual and educational self-growth, self-improvement, communication skills, speechcraft, and leadership abilities as both students and teachers in this world. TJ shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including product design. As a result ACE and ACO has become the home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Ascension Center Education aka ACE Folklife Archivists. We are agents, consultants, organizers, archivists, copywriters, editors, writers and practitioners. We are the ACO Community Online Practicing Skills or ACIR COPS. ACIR American Culture International Relations founded by Theresa J Morris.

Theresa J Morris

Intuitive Spiritual Metaphysician Minister and Human Design Analyst Communications Counselor. Healing esoteric arts with over 30 years’ experience. Studied ancient wisdoms and new thought teachings, traditional cultures and spiritual traditions including the paranormal. Speaker, Life Coach, Intuitive Tarot Reader and trans-personal consultant. Sharing spiritual modalities, combined with unique systems about life from experience and what works. Soul education as ordained interfaith nondenominational Minister performs marriages, Spiritual Counselor, Intuitive Medium and Energy Teacher. Facilitator for metaphysical workshops, educational seminars, and Hypno-Regressionist. Author of over 30 books and agent, consultant, organizer for organizational events.

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TJ Morris Publishing a division of TJ Morris ACO. Theresa J Thurmond Morris is an author, entrepreneur, agent-consultant-organizer in the USA. Theresa Janette goes by TJ to her friends in the American Culture Online Community which she began as her own social network media friends before Facebook and Twitter. TJ now shares her life online 50% of the time with ACO Social Service Club and team building for the ACE Nonprofit Inc and ACO Corp.Org. TJ Morris Business Services assists entrepreneurs in workshops, seminars, and event planning to share a community online practicing skills as COPS.TJ is a member of BMI, ACE Folklife, ACE Nonprofit Inc., and ERA COP Association for advancing art, culture, education, and research for cyberspace community in our Global Culture. TJ Morris dba ACIR, ACO, ACE, TJ Morris Treasure Shop, and ERA COP. TJ Morris ET Radio Show, TJMorris Media, TJ Morris Hosting and TJ Morris Entertainment. Artists, Authors, Consultants, Organizers, Researchers use TJ Morris. Theresa J Morris shares authoring 40 books available online at Amazon, Lulu, Books-A-Million, and stores. TJ speaks at conferences such as the Mid-South Con and Lightworkers Conferences. TJ specializes in spiritual, metaphysical, paranormal, science fiction and fantasy. TJ subscribes to Universal Life Theories in Cosmology, Philosophy, Psychology and Theosophy. Soul Science improving consciousness in literacy and education online is shared in the TJ Morris Radio Shows, TJ Morris Media & Hosting. Author’s Videos

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ASCENSION AGE 2012 & BEYOND

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ASCENSION AGE 2012 & BEYOND

By Theresa J Thurmond Morris

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Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond is about awareness and awakening. This is a guide book for humankind. This is the first in a series of books that will assist everyone. Ascension Age is about being a… More >

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UPLIFTING THE SOUL

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UPLIFTING THE SOUL

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THIS IS ABOUT A SPIRITUAL JOURNEY This is the first (1) spiritual guide book in a series by Theresa “TJ” Thurmond Morris. A young many, 28 yrs., Australian, writer, disabled, loses his… More >

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AVATAR ASCENSION MASTER GUIDE

THIS TIMELINE FOLLOWED BY HUMANOIDS ON EARTH OF THE GODS

AND ANGEL TIMELINE IS IN THE BOOK OF COSMOLOGY by TJ

PHYSICAL-ASTRAL-ETHERIC BODIES USED WITH THE HOLY GHOST (SPIRIT)

(ERA COP)

ASCENSION ANCIENT MYSTERY SCHOOLS OF THE ARAK

ANGELS OF THE BENEVOLENT (BLUE BLOOD HUMANOIDS OF EARTH)

Emotional, Mental, Physical, Spiritual = Earth, Wind, Fire, Water, Spirit

Annana of the Annunaki Medicine Woman comes much later.

THE STORIES OF ARAK PREDATE THOSE OF MU AND ALL EL GODS

GODS OF ALL FOLKLIFE AND RELIGIONS PREMONITION

By Design of the Avatar Ascension Masters for the Supreme High Counsel

“LIVE and LET LIVE!” “Health & Prosperity” The LIFE ON EARTH of an ACE FOLKLIFE HUMAN MEMBER.

TIMELINE -ARAK TIMELINE PREDATES ANNUNAKI

Earth known shared history in ACE FOLKLIFE

ARAK GODS LIVED BEFORE THE ANNUNAKI!

TARA IS DAUGHTER OF ZEUS

THOTH is a SPARK of TARA

THOTH like ENLIL-HAS AN ANNUNKI CONNECTION PASSED DOWN IN ANTHOLOGY

ARAK ANTHOLOGY PREDATES AKKADIAN AND SUMERIAN WRITTEN STORIES ON FIRED CLAY TABLETS LEFT FOR HUMANOIDS TO DEFINE IN ACE FOLKLIFE HISTORY

TJ is the ET SPIRIT GUIDE of the ASCENSION AGE – MESSENGER STORY TELLER

CHANNEL OF THE DOWNLOADS COMMISSIONS FOR CERTIFICATION STORIES OF THE HISTORY BEING ETERNALLY REWRITTEN AGAIN AS HAS BEEN DONE IN THE PAST!

HISTORY OF THE MYTHOLOGICAL WORLD

This chronology lists several of the events in mythology and legend with known events in history along with several events of topical interest.

  • The Hyborian Age (according to Robert Howard, this age occurs between the Ice Age and the beginning of written history.)
  • c. 4004 BC (?) – Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden
  • c. 3100 – Estimated construction of Stonehenge in Wales. Its components are excavated from the Preseli Hills, 240 miles distant from its present location.
  • 2690 – King Khufu (Cheops) begins construction of the Great Pyramid
  • c. 2500 – Construction of the pyramids begins in Egypt.
  • Cronus deposes Ouranus
  • Cronus imprisons his children in Tartarus (Later legends erroneously claims he swallows them and that they survived inside him until released.)
  • Zeus is born on Mount Ida in Crete. His birth is kept a secret from Cronus and minor goddesses raise Zeus in secret.
  • Metis is the first wife of Zeus.
  • Zeus learns his destiny to conquer Olympus. He seduces and takes Themis, Mnemosyne, Dione and Eurynome as wives.
  • Zeus frees his siblings from Tartarus.
  • Zeus seduces Demeter and Hera.
  • C. 2475 – King Gilgamesh reigns as Ruler of Ur in the Sumeria Empire
  • c. 2404 – Biblical Noah/Utnapishtim and his family survive the flood in an ark. Zeus conquers Olympus and takes Hera as his queen; Cronus flees into exile. Zeus and his brothers cast lots for the world as Poseidon inherits the oceans and Hades takes over Tartarus with his kingdom centered and named for himself.
  • Eileithyia born.
  • Persephone born.
  • Hera drives Zeus’s other wives from Olympus. Leto flees to the island of Delos, Metis for Libya and Dione for Cythera.
  • Apollo and Artemis born from Leto with Eileithyia as midwife.
  • Ares (Aphneius) is born to Zeus and Hera on Olympus.
  • Aphrodite born on Cythera (later legends claim she sprang from the ocean).
  • Hephaestus born.
  • Ares and Hephaestus are young gods as their half-sister, Athena, daughter of Zeus and Metis arrives at Olympus with the secret to the headaches, which Zeus is suffering (Later legends erroneously claim she sprung from his head).
  • Hephaestus remains humble, seeking to tinker as a blacksmith god. Zeus accuses Hera of infidelity under the belief that Hephaestus is not his son. In the scuffle, they blindly knock the young smith god from Olympus. He lands in the sea near Lemnos and nursed from his injuries to full health by the Nereids.
  • c. 2395 BC – Gilgamesh reigns as King of Ur
  • Inanna/Aphrodite tries to tempt Gilgamesh, but he spurns her advantages.
  • Hermes born
  • As a young god, Hermes steals the cattle of Apollo and sacrifices one to the gods counting himself among them. Apollo backs Hermes acceptance into the pantheon.
  • 2297 BC (?) – A flood devastates China during the reign of Emperor Yao
  • c. 2190 BC – Shi Huang Ti, first ruler of unified China, begins construction of the Great Wall of China using prisoners of war as slave labor.
  • c. 2000 BC – The Ancient Greeks begin worshipping the Olympian Pantheon as gods. Some of the Olympian Immortals begin choosing their favorite cities as centers of their worship.
  • Inachos arbitrates Argos to Hera instead of Poseidon. His riverbed is dried up in retaliation.
  • Phoroneus founds Phoronea.
  • Pelasgus, son of Inachos, becomes leader of the Pelasgians.
    Pegasus the Flying Horse has it’s own history of the Gods.
  • c. 1900 – The first Battle of Magh Tureidh in Ireland between the Tuatha de Danaan and the Fomore
  • c. 1700 – The Milesians conquer Eire from the Tuatha de Danaan
  • c. 1600 – Zeus seduces Io, daughter of Inachos, but transforms her into a cow to conceal the infidelity. Her sister, Mycene, marries Arestor, founder of Mycenae.
  • Hera has Argus guard Io, but he is slain by Hermes. Io flees to her father, Inachos, the river-god, who barely recognizes her. She flees to Egypt and gives birth to Epaphus.
  • Young Epaphus is friend of Phaethon, son of Helios. Phaethon travels to his father for proof he is his son. He scorches the Earth trying to maneuver Helios’s sun chariot and is knocked out of the sky by Zeus.
  • c. 1585 – Epaphus/Apepi reigns as King of Egypt.
  • c. 1575 – Apis succeeds Phoroneus, king of Argos.
  • Hephaestus is welcomed back to Olympus by Hera. He creates thunderbolts for Zeus and jewelry for Hera.
  • Prometheus steals fire to give to mortals, but is chained to the Caucasus Mountains as punishment.
  • Hephaestus creates Pandora and Hera brings her to life to bring misfortune to mortal man for accepting fire.
  • Pandora opens a jar she was warned to never open and a hive of demons are released spawning evil in mortal man from it.
  • Prometheus warns Deucalion to build an ark.
  • 1470 BC – Thera/Atlantis explodes. The resulting flood washes away the earth. Athens is flooded during the reign of King Cecrops believing it is punishment for accepting Athena as their matron goddess over Poseidon. Celtic Noah and his family survive in an ark as does Deucalion whose father had a premonition of the disaster. Pelasgus, King of Arcadia and heir to Argos, survives the flood.
  • Greek armies invade Phoenicia. Aphrodite joins the Olympian pantheon after an existence as Ishtar of the Phoenician gods. Zeus seduces the Phoenician princess Europa and takes her to Crete.
  • Sons of Japeth, the son of Noah, conquer Eire and Britain. Rivals of the native Celtic gods, they become ancestors to the kings of Eire and Britain.
  • c. 1465 – Danaus and his daughters are received by King Galanor of Argos. They claim Argos as ancestors of Io.
  • 1462 BC – Eight years after the flood, Cadmus founds Thebes by conquering the indigenous Hyantes and Aonian tribes and slaying a dragon sacred to Ares.
  • c. 1459 – Hades abducts Persephone in the reign of King Celeus of Eleusis.
  • 1454 BC – Eight years after killing the dragon, Cadmus becomes king of Thebes.
  • c. 1440 – Zeus seduces Semele, daughter of Cadmus. Hera places doubts in her of whether Zeus is her lover and she dies by accident when he calls upon lightning to prove his identity. Zeus removes his son Dionysus from her to spare his life and gives him to the Maenads, lesser goddesses to nurse to health.
  • 1420 BC –Aethlius founds Elis fifty years after the flood.
  • 1419 BC – After a long reign, Cadmus supplanted by Pentheus.
  • c. 1395 – The city of Jericho in Ancient Palestine falls under forces controlled by Israelite leader Joshua. All its inhabitants are massacred and the city is cursed.
  • 1379 – Pentheus is deposed by Dionysus. Polydorus, his brother-in-law and son of Cadmus, succeeds him.
  • 1363 BC – During the Ming Dynasty, the Great Wall of China is restored after it is nearly destroyed by Mongolian occupation.
  • As an adult, Dionysus joins the Olympian Pantheon.
  • Hephaestus discovers Aphrodite has been unfaithful with Ares and reveals the affair to the gods. He lays his bad marriage on the fault of Hera and builds a throne that imprisons her. Dionysus gets him drunk to release her.
  • 1364 BC – On Polydorus’s death, Nycteus becomes regent for Labdacus, son of Polydorus.
  • 1338 BC – Labdacus rules briefly before his death. Lycus, brother of Nycteus, is regent for his son Laius.
  • 1318 BC – After twenty years, Lycus overthrown by Amphion, grandson of Nycteus. Laius is sent to the court of King Pelops of Pisa.
  • 1304 BC – Laius hurries home to claim the throne after deaths of Amphion and Zethus.
  • Zeus seduces Danae in the reign of King Acrisius of Argos. An oracle reveals her son will depose him and Acrisius casts her into the sea.
  • Oedipus born to Laius and Jocasta, but a prophecy claims he will depose his father. Oedipus is exposed on a mountain and raised by farmers.
  • c. 1290 – Perseus leaves Argos to his cousin Megapenthes after the death of King Acrisius. He rebuilds the walls of Mycenae.
  • Laius killed by Oedipus at Delphi. Jocasta names her brother Creon as regent.
  • Perseus succeeded by his son Electryon.
  • 1276, October 31 – Hercules born in Thebes during the earlier reign of King Creon, brother of Jocasta. He loses his claim to throne of Mycenae to his cousin, Eurystheus.
  • 1261 BC – Theseus born in Troezen.
  • 1256 BC – Twenty years old, Hercules marries Megaera, daughter of Creon.
  • Oedipus slays the Sphinx and becomes King of Thebes.
  • c. 1255 Oedipus learns that Jocasta is his mother and blinds himself. He abdicates and places Eteocles and Polyneices on the throne.
  • 1250 BC – Philistine armies from Caphtor (Crete) invade Gerar (Palestine). The Philistines are rumored to be descendants of the Pelasgians.
  • Eteocles banishes Polyneices who raises an army in Argos to retake the throne in the reign of King Adrastus. Both brothers slay each other in battle. Elderly Creon becomes regent for Laodamas, son of Eteocles.
  • c. 1242 – Creon is murdered by Lycus, who is in turn is deposed by Hercules. Thersander, son of Polyneices, takes the throne.  Peleus and Telamon born to Aeacus and Endeis in Phthia.
  • Peleus weds Thetis.
  • c. 1229 – Peleus and Telamon join the Argonauts.
  • 1223 BC – Helen and Pollux born in Sparta to Zeus and Leda. Leda also conceives Castor and Clytemnestra to King Tyndareus restored to the Spartan throne by Hercules.
  • c. 1220 – During his tenth labor, Hercules visits Ancient Briton ruled by Albion, son of Poseidon.
  • 1211 BC – Helen (12) abducted by Theseus (50).
  • Hercules rescues Theseus from the Underworld.
  • 1209 BC – Achilles born in Phthia.
  • Hercules killed through the treachery of Nessus, but restored to life by Zeus as a god.
  • 1205 BC – Helen (18) approached by suitors.
  • 1200 BC – Achilles (9) hidden in the court of King Lycomedes of Scyros.
  • 1196 BC – Achilles (13) seduces Deidameia who gives him a son, Pyrrhus.
  • 1194 BC – The Trojan War begins. Achilles is 15 years old. King Thersander of Thebes dies at the onset of the throne. His regent, Peneleus, dies alongside him.
  • 1184 BC – Odysseus secrets Greek soldiers inside a Wooden Horse into Troy and successfully takes the city. Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) (13), son of Achilles, slays King Priam.
  • Tisamenus inherits the throne at Thebes.
  • Autesion ascends the throne of Thebes.
  • Trojan refugees from Thrace conquer lands north of Gaul. Their ancestors will found the region of Saxony upon which modern Germany is built and conquer Britain from the Celts, developing later the British Empire.
  • c. 1114 BC – Damasichthon, son of Peneleus, becomes King of Thebes.
  • 1050 BC – Samson, defender of the Israelites, topples the temple of Samson down upon himself and 1000 Philistines after being betrayed by his mistress.
  • 1000 BC – David slays Goliath and becomes Ruler of Israel.
  • Queen Louhi of Pohjola (now part of modern Finland) holds the wizard Vainamoinen captive in return for the creation of a mystical amulet
  • Legendary King Brutus, great-grandson of Aeneas, becomes founder and the first king of Britain.
  • c. 750 Romulus and Remus are the legendary founders of Rome.
  • 660 BC – Jimmu Tenno, grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, begins his rule as Emperor of Japan.
  • Reign of Queen Medb of Ireland
  • c. 605 BC – King Nebuchadnezzar creates the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife, Queen Semiramis.
  • c. 600 BC – Athenian poet first Solon receives the story of Atlantis from Egyptian priests.
  • 468 BC – Mycenae is besieged and destroyed by inhabitants of Argos and is never restored.
  • 430 BC – A two-year plague begins in Athens.
  • c. 390 BC – Belinus and Brennus, legendary kings of Britain lay siege on the Roman army and sack Rome
  • c. 350 BC – Plato first relates the story of Atlantis.
  • 334 BC – Alexander the Great makes a sacrifice to the gods near the ruins of Troy before his siege of Persia.
  • 68 BC – Cicilian pirates introduce worship of the Eastern God Mithras to Rome.
  • 49 BC – Julius Caesar becomes Ruler of Rome. He leads three expeditions trying to seize Britain, but is defeated by Lud, King of Britain.
  • c. 35 BC – During the reign of Judean ruler Herod the Great, the fortifications at Jericho are strengthened and several structures are rebuilt.
  • c. 8 BC – King Conchobor begins his twelve-year rein of Ancient Eire. Warrior Cu Chulainn is born during his rule.
  • 6 BC– Jesus Christ born in Bethlehem, Judea controlled by the Roman Empire. He begins the foundation for Christianity.
  • 43 BC – Emperor Claudius of Rome begins conquest of Britain, bringing an end to the rule of legendary King Llud
  • 64, July 19 AD – A fire beginning in Circus Maximus claims much of Rome during the reign of King Nero.
  • 72 AD – Construction of the Roman Coliseum began under Emperor Vespasian on site of a villa, which belonged to Nero.
  • 79 AD – An eruption at Vesuvius buries Pompeii and Herculaneum.
  • 80 AD – Emperor Titus dedicates the Coliseum to his father.
  • 107 AD – Tarjan, Emperor of Rome, conquers Dacia (modern Romania) and makes it a Roman province.
  • c. 120 AD – Hadrian’s Wall constructed
  • c. 390 AD – King Vortigern meets with Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa, descendants of Odin, in allowing the Saxons into Britain. He slays King Constantine of Britain and takes the throne for himself.
  • c. 395 AD – Merlin commissions the moving of Stonehenge to its present location at Salisbury.
  • c. 400 AD – King Gunther of Burgundy takes over land down river on the Rhine and meets Siegfried, son of King Sigmund, of the Netherlands. In the South Pacific, Polynesians led by Chief Hotu Matua land at Easter Island.
  • Siegfried helps Gunther win the hand of Brynhild.
  • 404 AD – Last tournament held in Roman Coliseum
  • 410 AD – King Arthur begins his reign as King of Britain.
  • 433 AD – Attila the Hun and his armies lay siege to much of Western Europe
  • 465 AD – Arthur is slain by his treacherous son, Mordred, at the Battle of Camlann. He bequeaths Excalibur to be returned to the Lady of the Lake.
  • 476 AD – The collapse of the Roman Empire
  • 534 AD – Burgundy absorbed into the Frank Empire (now part of modern France).
  • c. 600 AD Beowulf slays Grendel
  • 613 AD – Queen Brynhilda, Visigoth Warrior Queen, controls parts of Northern Gaul.
  • 786 AD – Sindbad travels the Middle East during the reign of King Mihrjan of Persia.
  • 800 AD – Charlemagne crowned ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
  • 957 – King Hrothgar, future king of the Danes is born.
  • 985 – The Vikings build a series of small settlements along Greenland and western North America
  • 1000 AD – By now, 887 statues dot Easter Island.
  • Reign of Brian Boru of Ireland
  • 1100 AD – Last pagan rituals held at Stonehenge.
  • 1157 AD – King Eric of Sweden invades Kalevala (Ancient Finland) and introduces Christianity to the natives.
  • 1160 AD – Traditional date of birth of Robin Hood
  • 1206 AD Genghis Khan rules the Mongols, leading a siege over much of Eastern Europe
  • 1456 – 1462 Reign of Vlad Tepes of Wallachia. A descendant of Genghis Khan, his brutality as a ruler inspires the legend of Dracula
  • 1492, October 12 – Christopher Columbus begins his exploration of the New World.
  • 1600 – Deforestation and lost top soil force the inhabitants of Easter Island to depart.
  • 1614 August – The trial of Elizabeth Bathory, believed responsible for the deaths of over 800 young girls
  • 1850 – Marie LaVeau at the height of her popularity in New Orleans
  • 1888, Summer – Five prostitutes are slain in White Chapel, an area of London by a figure known only as Jack The Ripper
  • 1898 AD – Heinrich Schliemann begins excavation on the site of Ancient Troy.
  • 1922, November 26 – Howard Carter breaks in to the tomb of Tutankhamen. A curse supposedly claims the majority of his archeological team.
  • 1929 – Archaeologist Leonard Woolley digging pits near Ur comes upon evidence of a great flood dating back to the Second Millennium BC.

Sumerian King List

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Sumerian King List is an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of kingship. Kingship was seen as handed down by the gods, and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region.[1] Throughout its Bronze Age existence, the document evolved into a political tool. Its final and single attested version, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, aimed to legitimize Isin‘s claims to hegemony when Isin was vying for dominance with Larsa and other neighboring city-states in southern Mesopotamia.[1][2]

Contents

Composition

The list blends prehistorical, presumably mythical predynastic rulers enjoying implausibly lengthy reigns with later, more plausibly historical dynasties. Although the primal kings are historically unattested, this does not preclude their possible correspondence with historical rulers who were later mythicized. Some Assyriologists view the predynastic kings as a later fictional addition.[1][3] Only one ruler listed is known to be female:Kug-Bau “the (female) tavern-keeper”, who alone accounts for the Third Dynasty of Kish. The earliest listed ruler whose historicity has been archaeologically verified is Enmebaragesi of Kish, ca. 2600 BC. Reference to him and his successor, Aga of Kish in the Epic of Gilgamesh has led to speculation that Gilgamesh himself may have been a historical king of Uruk. Three dynasties are absent from the list: the Larsa dynasty, which vied for power with the (included) Isin dynasty during the Isin-Larsa period; and the two dynasties of Lagash, which respectively preceded and ensued the Akkadian Empire, when Lagash exercised considerable influence in the region. Lagash in particular is known directly from archaeological artifacts dating from ca. 2500 BC. The list is important to the chronology of the 3rd millennium BC. However, the fact that many of the dynasties listed reigned simultaneously from varying localities makes it difficult to reproduce a strict linear chronology.[1]

Sources

The following extant ancient sources contain the Sumerian King List, or fragments:

The last two sources (WB) are a part of the “Weld-Blundell collection”, donated by Herbert Weld Blundell to the Ashmolean Museum. WB 62 is a small clay tablet, inscribed only on the obverse, unearthed from Larsa. It is the oldest dated source (c. 2000 BC) containing the list.[6] WB 444 in contrast is a unique inscribed vertical prism,[1][7][8][9] dated c. 1817 BC, although some scholars prefer c. 1827 BC.[10] The Kish Tablet orScheil dynastic tablet is an early 2nd millennium BC tablet which came into possession of Jean-Vincent Scheil; it only contains king list entries for four Sumerian cities.[11] UCBC 9-1819 is a clay tablet housed in the collection of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of California.[12] The tablet was inscribed during the reign of the Babylonian King Samsu-iluna, or slightly earlier, with a minimum date of 1712 BC.[13] The Dynastic Chronicle (ABC 18) is a Babylonian king list written on six columns, beginning with entries for the antideluvian Sumerian rulers. K 11261+[14] is one of the copies of this chronicle, consisting of three joinedNeo-Assyrian fragments discovered at the Library of Ashurbanipal.[15] K 12054 is another of the Neo-Assyrian fragments from Uruk (c. 640 BC) but contains a variant form of the antediluvians on the list. The laterBabylonian and Assyrian king lists, preserved the earliest portions of the list well into the 3rd century BC, when Berossus’ Babyloniaca popularized fragments of the list in the Hellenic world. In 1960, the Apkullu-list (Tablet No. W.20030, 7) or “Uruk List of Kings and Sages” (ULKS) was discovered by German archaeologists at an ancient temple at Uruk. The list, dating to c. 165 BC, contains a series of kings, equivalent to the Sumerian antediluvians called “Apkullu”.[16]

The list

Early dates are approximate, and are based on available archaeological data; for most pre-Akkadian rulers listed, this king list is itself the lone source of information. Beginning with Lugal-zage-si and the Third Dynasty of Uruk (which was defeated by Sargon of Akkad), a better understanding of how subsequent rulers fit into the chronology of the ancient Near East can be deduced. The short chronology is used here.

Antediluvian rulers

None of the following predynastic antediluvian rulers has been verified as historical via archaeological excavationsepigraphical inscriptions, or otherwise. It is possible that they correspond to the Early Bronze AgeJemdet Nasr period culture which ended approximately 2900 BC, immediately preceding the dynasts,[17] if they were not purely mythological inventions.

The antediluvian reigns were measured in Sumerian numerical units known as sars (units of 3600), ners (units of 600), and sosses (units of 60).[18]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
“After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years.”
Alulim 8 sars (28,800 years) Between 35th and 30th century BC
Alalngar 10 sars (36,000 years)
“Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira.”
En-men-lu-ana 12 sars (43,200 years)
En-men-gal-ana 8 sars (28,800 years)
Dumuzid, the Shepherd “the shepherd” 10 sars (36,000 years)
“Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship was taken to Larag.”
En-sipad-zid-ana 8 sars (28,800 years)
“Then Larag fell and the kingship was taken to Zimbir.”
En-men-dur-ana 5 sars and 5 ners (21,000 years)
“Then Zimbir fell and the kingship was taken to Shuruppag.”
Ubara-Tutu 5 sars and 1 ner (18,600 years)
“Then the flood swept over.”[19] Excavations in Iraq have revealed evidence of localized flooding at Shuruppak (modern Tell Fara, Iraq) and various other Sumerian cities. A layer of riverine sediments, radiocarbon dated to ca. 2900 BC, interrupts the continuity of settlement, extending as far north as the city of Kish.Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period (3000-2900 BC) was discovered immediately below the Shuruppak flood stratum.[20]

First Dynasty of Kish

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
“After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was inKish.”
Jushur 1200 years historicity uncertain names before Etana do not appear in any other known source, and their existence is archaeologically unverified
Kullassina-bel 960 years
Nangishlishma 670 years
En-tarah-ana 420 years
Babum 300 years
Puannum 840 years
Kalibum 960 years
Kalumum 840 years
Zuqaqip 900 years
Atab (or A-ba) 600 years
Mashda “the son of Atab” 840 years
Arwium “the son of Mashda” 720 years
Etana “the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries” 1500 years
Balih “the son of Etana” 400 years
En-me-nuna 660 years
Melem-Kish “the son of En-me-nuna” 900 years
Barsal-nuna (“the son of En-me-nuna”)* 1200 years
Zamug “the son of Barsal-nuna” 140 years
Tizqar “the son of Zamug” 305 years
Ilku 900 years
Iltasadum 1200 years
En-me-barage-si “who made the land of Elamsubmit” 900 years ca. 2600 BC the earliest ruler on the List confirmed independently from epigraphical evidence
Aga of Kish “the son of En-me-barage-si” 625 years ca. 2600 BC contemporary with Gilgamesh ofUruk, according to theEpic of Gilgamesh[6] Gilgameš and Aga Translation at ETCSL
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.”

First Dynasty of Uruk

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Mesh-ki-ang-gasherof E-ana “the son of Utu” 324 years ca. 27th
“Mesh-ki-ang-gasher entered the sea and disappeared.”
Enmerkar “the son of Mesh-ki-ang-gasher, the king of Unug, who built Unug (Uruk)” 420 years
Lugalbanda “the shepherd” 1200 years
Dumuzid (Dumuzi) “the fisherman whose city was Kuara.”
(“He capturedEn-me-barage-si single-handedly.”)*
100 years ca. 2600 BC
Gilgamesh “whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba” 126 years ca. 2600 BC contemporary withAga of Kish, according to theEpic of Gilgamesh[21]
Ur-Nungal “the son of Gilgamesh” 30 years
Udul-kalama “the son of Ur-Nungal” 15 years
La-ba’shum 9 years
En-nun-tarah-ana 8 years
Mesh-he “the smith” 36 years
Melem-ana 6 years
Lugal-kitun 36 years
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).”

First Dynasty of Ur

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Mesh-Ane-pada 80 years ca. 26th century BC
Mesh-ki-ang-Nuna “the son of Mesh-Ane-pada” 36 years
Elulu 25 years
Balulu 36 years
“Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.”

Dynasty of Awan[edit]

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Three kings of Awan 356 years ca. 26th century BC
“Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.”

Second Dynasty of Kish

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Susuda “the fuller” 201 years ca. 26th century BC
Dadasig 81 years
Mamagal “the boatman” 360 years
Kalbum “the son of Mamagal” 195 years
Tuge 360 years
Men-nuna “the son of Tuge” 180 years
(Enbi-Ishtar) 290 years
Lugalngu 360 years
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.”

The First Dynasty of Lagash (ca. 2500 – ca. 2271 BC) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions

Dynasty of Hamazi

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Hadanish 360 years ca. 2500 BC
“Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).”

Second Dynasty of Uruk

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
En-shag-kush-ana 60 years ca. 25th century BC said to have conquered parts of Sumer; then Eannatum of Lagashclaims to have taken over Sumer, Kish, and all Mesopotamia.
Lugal-kinishe-dudu or Lugal-ure 120 years contemporary with Entemena ofLagash
Argandea 7 years
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).”

Second Dynasty of Ur

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Nanni 120 years ca. 25th century BC
Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II “the son of Nanni” 48 years
(?) 2 years
“Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab.”

Dynasty of Adab

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Lugal-Ane-mundu 90 years ca. 25th century BC said to have conquered allMesopotamia from the Persian Gulf to the Zagros Mountains and Elam
“Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari.”

Dynasty of Mari

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Anbu 30 years ca. 25th century BC
Anba “the son of Anbu” 17 years
Bazi “the leatherworker” 30 years
Zizi of Mari “the fuller” 20 years
Limer “the ‘gudug’ priest” 30 years
Sharrum-iter 9 years
“Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.”

Third Dynasty of Kish

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Kug-Bau(Kubaba) “the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish” 100 years ca. 25th century BC the only known woman in the King List; said to have gained independence from En-anna-tum Iof Lagash and En-shag-kush-ana ofUruk; contemporary with Puzur-Nirah of Akshak, according to the later Chronicle of the É-sagila
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akshak.”

Dynasty of Akshak

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Unzi 30 years ca. 25th – 24th century BC
Undalulu 6 years
Urur 6 years
Puzur-Nirah 20 years contemporary with Kug-Bau of Kish, according to the later Chronicle of É-sagila
Ishu-Il 24 years
Shu-Suen of Akshak “the son of Ishu-Il” 7 years
“Then Akshak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.”

Fourth Dynasty of Kish

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Puzur-Suen “the son ofKug-Bau 25 years ca. 24th – 23rd century BC
Ur-Zababa “the son of Puzur-Suen” 400 (6?) years ca. 2300 BC according to the king list,Sargon of Akkad was his cup-bearer
Zimudar 30 years
Usi-watar “the son of Zimudar” 7 years
Eshtar-muti 11 years
Ishme-Shamash 11 years
(Shu-ilishu)* (15 years)*
Nanniya “the jeweller” 7 years ca. 2303-2296 BC (short)
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).”

Third Dynasty of Uruk

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Lugal-zage-si 25 years ca. 2296–2271 BC (short) said to have defeated Urukagina of Lagash, as well as Kish and other Sumerian cities, creating a unified kingdom; he in turn was overthrown by Sargon of Akkad
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Agade (Akkad)”

Dynasty of Akkad

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Sargon of Akkad “whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade” 40 years ca. 2270–2215 BC (short) defeatedLugal-zage-siof Uruk, took over Sumer, and began the Akkadian Empire
Rimush of Akkad “the son of Sargon” 9 years ca. 2214–2206 BC (short)
Man-ishtishu “the older brother of Rimush, the son of Sargon” 15 years ca. 2205–2191 BC (short)
Naram-Sin of Akkad “the son of Man-ishtishu” 56 years ca. 2190–2154 BC (short)
Shar-kali-sharri “the son of Naram-Sin” 25 years ca. 2153–2129 BC (short)
“Then who was king? Who was not the king?”
“and the 4 of them ruled for only 3 years” ca. 2128–2125 BC (short)
Dudu of Akkad 21 years ca. 2125–2104 BC (short)
Shu-Durul “the son of Dudu” 15 years ca. 2104–2083 BC (short) Akkad falls to theGutians
“Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).”

Fourth Dynasty of Uruk

(Possibly rulers of lower Mesopotamia contemporary with the Dynasty of Akkad)

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Ur-ningin 7 years ca. 2091? – 2061? BC (short)
Ur-gigir “the son of Ur-ningin” 6 years
Kuda 6 years
Puzur-ili 5 years
Ur-Utu (or Lugal-melem) (“the son of Ur-gigir”)* 25 years
“Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium.”

The 2nd Dynasty of Lagash (before ca. 2093–2046 BC (short)) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions.

Gutian rule

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
“In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years.”
Inkishush 6 years ca. 2147–2050 BC (short)
Zarlagab 6 years
Shulme (or Yarlagash) 6 years
Silulumesh (or Silulu) 6 years
Inimabakesh (or Duga) 5 years
Igeshaush (or Ilu-An) 6 years
Yarlagab 3 years
Ibate of Gutium 3 years
Yarla (or Yarlangab) 3 years
Kurum 1 year
Apilkin 3 years
La-erabum 2 years mace head inscription
Irarum 2 years
Ibranum 1 year
Hablum 2 years
Puzur-Suen “the son of Hablum” 7 years
Yarlaganda 7 years foundation inscription at Umma
(?) 7 years Si-um or Si-u? — foundation inscription at Umma
Tirigan 40 days defeated by Utu-hengal of Uruk
“Then the army of Gutium was defeated and the kingship taken to Unug (Uruk).”

Fifth Dynasty of Uruk

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Utu-hengal conflicting dates (427 years / 26 years / 7 years) ca. 2055–2048 BC (short) defeats Tirigan and the Gutians, appoints Ur-Namma governor of Ur
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).”

Third Dynasty of Ur

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Ur-Namma(Ur-Nammu) 18 years ca. 2047–2030 BC (short) defeats Nammahani of Lagash; contemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk
Shulgi “the son of Ur-Namma” 46 years ca. 2029–1982 BC (short) possible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC
Amar-Suena “the son of Shulgi” 9 years ca. 1981–1973 BC (short)
Shu-Suen “the son of Amar-Suena” 9 years ca. 1972–1964 BC (short)
Ibbi-Suen “the son of Shu-Suen” 24 years ca. 1963–1940 BC (short)
“Then Urim was defeated. The very foundation of Sumer was torn out. The kingship was taken toIsin.”

Independent Amorite states in lower Mesopotamia. The Dynasty of Larsa (ca. 1961–1674 BC (short)) from this period is not mentioned in the King List.

Dynasty of Isin

Ruler Epithet Length of reign Approx. dates Comments
Ishbi-Erra 33 years ca. 1953–1730 BC (short) contemporary of Ibbi-Suen ofUr
Shu-Ilishu “the son of Ishbi-Erra” 20 years
Iddin-Dagan “the son of Shu-ilishu” 20 years
Ishme-Dagan “the son of Iddin-Dagan” 20 years
Lipit-Eshtar “the son of Ishme-Dagan (or Iddin-Dagan)” 11 years contemporary of Gungunum ofLarsa
Ur-Ninurta (“the son of Ishkur, may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life”)* 28 years Contemporary of Abisare ofLarsa
Bur-Suen “the son of Ur-Ninurta” 21 years
Lipit-Enlil “the son of Bur-Suen” 5 years
Erra-imitti 8 years He appointed his gardener, Enlil-Bani, substitute king and then suddenly died.
Enlil-bani 24 years contemporary of Sumu-la-El ofBabylon. He was Erra-imitti’s gardener and was appointed substitute king, to serve as a scapegoat and then sacrificed, but remained on the throne when Erra.imitti suddenly died.
Zambiya 3 years contemporary of Sin-Iqisham ofLarsa
Iter-pisha 4 years
Ur-du-kuga 4 years
Suen-magir 11 years
(Damiq-ilishu)* (“the son of Suen-magir”)* (23 years)*

* These epithets or names are not included in all versions of the king list.

See also

Ancient Near East portal

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e Van De Mieroop, Marc (2004). A History of the Ancient Near East. Blackwell. p. 41. ISBN 0-631-22552-8.
  2. Jump up^ The spelling of royal names follows the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
  3. Jump up^ von Soden, Wolfram; Donald G. Schley, translator (1994). The Ancient Orient. Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 47. ISBN 0-8028-0142-0.
  4. Jump up^ translation
  5. Jump up^ translation
  6. Jump up^ Langdon, OECT2 (1923), pl. 6.
  7. Jump up^ [1] Stephen Langdon, Historical inscriptions, containing principally the chronological prism, W-B 444, Oxford University Press, 1923
  8. Jump up^ “WB-444 High Resolution Image from CDLI”.
  9. Jump up^ “WB-444 Line Art from CDLI”.
  10. Jump up^ Ancient Iraq: (Assyria and Babylonia), Peter Roger Stuart Moorey, Ashmolean Museum, 1976; The Sumerian King List, T. Jacobsen, University of Chicago Press, 1939, p. 77.
  11. Jump up^ “The Early Chronology of Sumer and Egypt and the Similarities in Their Culture”, S. Langdon, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, Oct., 1921, p. 133. [2]
  12. Jump up^ “The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet”, J. J. Finkelstein, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1963, p. 39.
  13. Jump up^ Finkelstein, 1963, pp.39-40.
  14. Jump up^ Lambert and Millard, Cuneiform Texts 46 Nr. 5
  15. Jump up^ Bilingual Chronicle Fragments, Irving L. Finkel, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, Apr., 1980, pp. 65-80.
  16. Jump up^ A copy of the tablet appears in Jan van Dijk and Werner R. Mayer, Texte aus dem Rès-Heiligtum in Uruk-Warka, Bagdader Mitteilungen Beiheft 2 (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1980), text no. 89 (= BaMB 2 89). For an edition of the text, see J. van Dijk, Die Inschriftenfunde, Vorläufiger Bericht über die… Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka 18 (1962), 44-52 and plate 27. [3]
  17. Jump up^ Wright, Henry. “The Earliest Bronze Age in Southwest Asia (3100-2700 BC)” (PDF). Retrieved 2008-07-04.
  18. Jump up^ [4] Christine Proust, Numerical and Metrological Graphemes: From Cuneiform to Transliteration, Cuneiform Digital Library Journal, 2009, ISSN 1540-8779
  19. Jump up^ http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr211.htm
  20. Jump up^ Harriet Crawford (2004), Sumer and the Sumerians, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-53338-6
  21. Jump up^ [5] Gilgameš and Aga Translation at ETCSL

Literature

  • Jacobsen, Thorkild. The Sumerian King ListOriental Institute, Assyriological Studies 11, University of Chicago Press, 1939
  • Rowton, M. B. The Date of the Sumerian King List, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 156–162, 1960
  • P. Steinkeller, An Ur III Manuscript of the Sumerian King List. In Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien: Festschrift fur Claus Wilcke, ed. W. Sallaberger et al., Harrassowitz Verlag, pp. 267–92, 2003
  • Young, Dwight W. The Incredible Regnal Spans of Kish I in the Sumerian King List, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 23–35, 1991
  • Hallo, William W. Beginning and End of the Sumerian King List in the Nippur Recension, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 52–57, 1963
  • Vincente, Claudine-Adrienne, “The Tall Leilan Recension of the Sumerian King List”, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 50 (1995), 234–270
  • Friberg, Jöran. “The Beginning and the End of the Sumerian King List”, in A remarkable collection of Babylonian mathematical texts: Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection Cuneiform Texts I, Springer, 2007,ISBN 0-387-34543-4
  • Michalowski, Piotr. History as Charter Some Observations on the Sumerian King List, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 237–248, 1983
  • Jean-Jacques Glassner, Mesopotamian Chronicles, Brill, 2005, ISBN 90-04-13084-5
  • J. J. Finkelstein, The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 39–51, 1963
  • Albrecht Goetze, Early Kings of Kish, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 105–111, 1961
  • Thomas Jacobs, The Sumerian King List, UGent paper, GONO department
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Era Cop Times News created by Theresa J Morris for her friends in cyberspace. Theresa is an author, entrepreneur and parapsychologist. Parapsychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the investigation of purportedly psychic phenomena, as clairvoyance, extrasensory perception, telepathy, and the like. TJ is a psychic medium who shares Consciousness & Soul. Love is the main ingredients as essence and energy of who and what we are as self. TJ is a Tarot Reader Life Coach and Spiritual Counselor. TJ is also an agent, consultant, and organizer and owns a small business in the USA. Theresa J Thurmond Morris, Theresa J Morris shortened her name as a brand to TJ Morris. Born Theresa Janette Thurmond, Monroe, Louisiana, USA, December 26, 1951 married, had four daughters all born in Texas. Became a private investigator, legal investigator, then worked for DOD, DON and GS status for US government. Studied arson, fraud, subrogation, personnel information security, and obtained security certificates before graduating U.S. Naval Hospital Corps School. Became interested in psychology, metaphysics, theology, neuroscience in 1980s and moved to Hawaii. Became a President CEO of a corporation and developed a line of clothing, handbags, small leather goods, shoes, and stationary items in cuercus suber oak as eco fashion 1990-1994. Founded the first Ascension Center and Psychic Network 1989 -1994. Transferred to Fort Hood, Killeen, TX where she met her husband Thomas R Morris, and US Army-Retired. Drove commercial semi 18 wheeler truck over the road all 48 lower states before becoming an author and blogger 2004-2014. Became an UFOlogist 2007 writing for UFO Digest. Author of Books 2007-2014 include Roswell Encounters, Roswell Connection, Taken Up, Enchanted Development, Theresa of Ascension, Knowing Cosmology, ACO Alien Contact Organization. TJ became a Radio Host June 3, 2012 as TJ Morris ET Radio and Cosmos Connection and has panel discussions and interviews authors. TJ is a motivational speaker in paranormal and spiritual communities with ET UFO, OBE, NDE, Dreams, and conscious experience shares. TJ has had many experiences with energy as a receiver of information as a keeper of the flame and became an archivist with her first book as Theresa Keeper of the Flame kept inside the book Ascension Ancient Mystery schools Psychic Awakening Classes which she is caretaker of the only copy as her gremremgremoire to be passed down to her four daughters.. . Ascension Ancient Mysteries shares as ACE Metaphysical Institute and Ascension Center Energetics for ACO and ACE as a joint venture in cyberspace culture sharing a universal world view with TJ Morris at the helm as Commander for radio shows as TJ Morris ET.

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Books Grimoire

Books of magic and for the operating system term, see Source Mage GNU/Linux.

Question book-new.svg

Design for an amulet comes from a central source the Black Pullet grimoire.

A grimoire /ɡrɪmˈwɑr/ is a textbook of magic.

Such books typically include instructions on how to create magical objects like talismans and amulets, how to perform magical spells, charms and divination and also how to summon or invoke supernatural entities such as angels, spirits, and demons.

In many cases, the books themselves are also believed to be imbued with magical powers, though in many cultures, other sacred texts that are not grimoires, such as the Bible, have also been believed to have supernatural properties intrinsically; in this manner while all books on magic could be thought of as grimoires, not all magical books should.

While the term grimoire is originally European and many Europeans throughout history, particularly ceremonial magicians and cunning folk, have made use of grimoires, the historian Owen Davies noted that similar books can be found all across the world, ranging from Jamaica to Sumatra, and he also noted that the first grimoires could be found not only in Europe but in the Ancient Near East.

Contents

Etymology

History

Ancient period

Medieval period

Early modern period

18th and 19th centuries

20th and 21st centuries

In popular culture

References

Bibliography

6 External links

Etymology

It is most commonly believed that the term grimoire originated from the Old French word grammaire, which had initially been used to refer to all books written in Latin. By the 18th century, the term had gained its now common usage in France and had begun to be used to refer purely to books of magic, which Owen Davies presumed was because “many of them continued to circulate in Latin manuscripts”.

The term grimoire also later developed into a figure of speech amongst the French indicating something that was hard to understand. It was only in the 19th century, with the increasing interest in occultism amongst the British following the publication of Francis Barrett’s The Magus (1801), that the term entered the English language in reference to books of magic.

History

Ancient period

The earliest known written magical incantations come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), where they have been found inscribed on various cuneiform clay tablets excavated by archaeologists from the city of Uruk and dated to between the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.

The ancient Egyptians also employed magical incantations, which have been found inscribed on various amulets and other items. The Egyptian magical system, known as heka, was greatly altered and enhanced after the Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great, invaded Egypt in 332 BCE.

Under the next three centuries of Hellenistic Egypt, the Coptic writing system evolved, and the Library of Alexandria was opened, and this likely had an influence upon books of magic, with the trend on known incantations switching from simple health and protection charms to more specific things, such as financial success and sexual fulfillment.

It was also around this time that the legendary figure of Hermes Trismegistus developed as a conflation of the Egyptian god Thoth and the Greek Hermes; this figure was associated with both writing and magic, and therefore of books on magic.

The ancient Greeks and Romans believed that books on magic were invented by the Persians, with the 1st-century CE writer Pliny the Elder stating that magic had been first discovered by the ancient philosopher Zoroaster around the year 6347 BCE but that it was only written down in the 5th century BCE by the magician Osthanes—his claims are not, however, supported by modern historians.

The ancient Jewish people were also often viewed as being knowledgeable in magic, which, according to legend, they had learned from Moses, who himself had learned it in Egypt. Indeed, amongst many ancient writers, Moses himself was seen as an Egyptian rather than a Jew, and two manuscripts likely dating to the 4th century, both of which purport to be the legendary eighth Book of Moses (the first five being the initial books in the Biblical Old Testament), present him as a polytheist who explained how to conjure gods and subdue demons.

Meanwhile, there is definite evidence of grimoires being used by certain, particularly Gnostic, sects of early Christianity; in the Book of Enoch found within the Dead Sea Scrolls for instance, there is various information on astrology and the angels. In possible connection with the Book of Enoch, the idea of Enoch and his great-grandson Noah having some involvement with books of magic given to them by angels continued in various forms through to the medieval period.

“Many of those in Ephesus who believed in Christianity now came and openly confessed their evil deeds. A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly. When they calculated the value of the scrolls, the total came to fifty thousand drachmas. In this way the word of the Lord spread widely and grew in power.”

Acts 19, c. 1st century

Israelite King Solomon was a Biblical figure also associated with magic and sorcery in the ancient world. The 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian Josephus mentioned a book circulating under the name of Solomon that contained incantations for summoning demons and described how a Jew called Eleazar used it to cure cases of possession. The book may have been the Testament of Solomon but was more probably a different work.

The pseudepigraphic Testament of Solomon is one of the oldest magical texts. It is a Greek manuscript attributed to Solomon and likely written in either Babylonia or Egypt sometime in the first five centuries CE, over a thousand years after Solomon’s death. The work tells of the building of The Temple and relates that construction was hampered by demons until the angel Michael gave the king a magical ring. The ring, engraved with the Seal of Solomon, had the power to bind demons from doing harm. Solomon used it to lock certain demons within jars and commanded others to do his bidding, although eventually, according to the Testament, he was tempted into worshipping “false gods”, such as Moloch, Baal, and Rapha. Subsequently, after losing favor with God, King Solomon wrote the work as both a warning and a guide to the reader.

Notwithstanding the accounts of Biblical figures like Moses, Enoch and Solomon being associated with magical practices, when Christianity became the dominant faith of the Roman Empire, the early Church frowned upon the propagation of books on magic, connecting it with paganism, and burned books of magic. The New Testament records that St. Paul had called for the burning of magic and pagan books in the city of Ephesus; this advice was adopted on a large scale after the Christian ascent to power. Even before Christianization, the Imperial Roman government had suppressed many pagan, Christian, philosophical, and divinatory texts that it viewed as threats to Roman authority, including those of the Greek mystic and mathematician Pythagoras.

Medieval period

In the Medieval period, the production of grimoires continued in Christendom, as well as amongst Jews and the followers of the newly founded Islamic faith. As the historian Owen Davies noted, “while the Christian Church was ultimately successful in defeating pagan worship it never managed to demarcate clearly and maintain a line of practice between religious devotion and magic,” and the use of such books on magic continued.

In Christianized Europe, the Church divided books of magic into two kinds; those that dealt with “natural magic” and those that dealt in “demonic magic”. The former was acceptable, because it was viewed as merely taking note of the powers in nature that were created by God; for instance, the Anglo-Saxon leechbooks, which contained simple spells designed for medicinal purposes, were tolerated. However, the latter, demonic magic was not acceptable, because it was believed that such magic did not come from God, but from the Devil and his demons – these grimoires dealt in such topics as necromancy, divination and demonology. Despite this, “there is ample evidence that the mediaeval clergy were the main practitioners of magic and therefore the owners, transcribers, and circulators of grimoires,” while several grimoires were actually attributed to various Popes.

An excerpt from Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, featuring various magical sigils (or סגולות, seguloth, in Hebrew)

One such Arabic grimoire devoted to astral magic, the 12th-century Ghâyat al-Hakîm fi’l-sihr, was later translated into Latin and circulated in Europe during the 13th century under the name of the Picatrix. Not all such grimoires of this era were based upon Arabic sources; the 13th-century the Sworn Book of Honorius, like the ancient Testament of Solomon before it, largely based upon the supposed teachings of the Biblical king Solomon and also included ideas such as prayers and a ritual circle, with the mystical purpose of having visions of God, Hell, and Purgatory and gaining much wisdom and knowledge as a result. Another was the Hebrew Sefer Raziel Ha-Malakh, translated in Europe as the Liber Razielis Archangeli.

A later book also claiming to have been written by Solomon was originally written in Greek during the 15th century, where it was known as the Magical Treatise of Solomon or the Little Key of the Whole Art of Hygromancy, Found by Several Craftmen and by the Holy Prophet Solomon. In the 16th century, this work had been translated into Latin and Italian, being renamed the Clavicula Salomonis, or the Key of Solomon.

Christendom during the Mediaeval Age, grimoires were written that were attributed to other ancient figures, thereby supposedly giving them a sense of authenticity because of their antiquity.

The German Abbot and occultist Trithemius (1462–1516) supposedly had in his possession a Book of Simon the Magician, based upon the New Testament figure of Simon Magus. Magus had been a contemporary of Jesus Christ’s and, like the Biblical Jesus, had supposedly performed miracles, but had been demonized by the Medieval Church as a devil worshipper and evil individual.

It was commonly believed by mediaeval people that other ancient figures, such as the poet Virgil, astronomer Ptolemy and philosopher Aristotle, had been involved in magic, and grimoires claiming to have been written by them were circulated. There were those who did not believe this; for instance, the Franciscan friar Roger Bacon (c. 1214–94) stated that books falsely claiming to be by ancient authors “ought to be prohibited by law”.

Early modern period

As the early modern period commenced in the late 15th century, many changes began to shock Europe that would have an effect on the production of grimoires; the historian Owen Davies classed the most important of these as being the Protestant Reformation and subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the witch-hunts and the advent of printing. The Renaissance saw the continuation of interest in magic that had been found in the Mediaeval period, and in this period, there was an increased interest in Hermeticism amongst occultists and ceremonial magicians in Europe, largely fueled by the 1471 translation of the ancient Corpus hermeticum into Latin by Marsilio Ficino (1433–99). Alongside this, there was also a rise in interest in a form of Jewish mysticism known as the Kabbalah, which was spread across the continent by Pico Della Mirandola and Johannes Reuchlin.

The most important magician of the Renaissance was Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535), who widely studied various occult topics and earlier grimoires and eventually published his own, the Three Books of Occult Philosophy, in 1533.

A similar figure was the Swiss magician known as Paracelsus (1493–1541), who published Of the Supreme Mysteries of Nature, in which he emphasized the distinction between good and bad magic.

A third such individual at the time was Johann Georg Faust, upon whom several pieces of later literature were written, such as Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus that portrayed him as consulting with demons.

The idea of demonology had remained strong in the Renaissance, and several demonological grimoires were published, including The Fourth Book of Occult Philosophy, which falsely claimed to having been authored by Agrippa, and the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, which listed 69 different demons.

To counter this, the Roman Catholic Church authorized the production of many works of exorcism, the rituals of which were often very similar to those of demonic conjuration. Alongside these demonological works, grimoires on natural magic also continued to be produced, including Magia naturalis, written by Giambattista Della Porta (1535–1615).

Man inscribed in a pentagram, from Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa’s De Occulta Philosophia (Eng., Three Books of Occult Philosophy). The signs on the perimeter are astrological.

The advent of printing in Europe meant that books could be mass-produced for the first time and could reach an ever-growing literate audience. Amongst the earliest books to be printed were magical texts; the nóminas were one example of this, consisting of prayers to the saints used as talismans.

It was particularly in Protestant countries, such as Switzerland and the German states, which were not under the domination of the Roman Catholic Church, where such grimoires were published. Despite the advent of print however, handwritten grimoires remained highly valued, as they were believed to contain inherent magical powers within them, and they continued to be produced.

Increasing availability to people lower down the social scale and women began to have access to books on magic; this was often incorporated into the popular folk magic of the average people, and in particular, that of the cunning folk, who were professionally involved in folk magic.

These works also left Europe and were imported to those parts of Latin America controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese empires and the parts of North America controlled by the British and French empires.

Throughout this period, the Inquisition, a Roman Catholic organization, had organized the mass suppression of peoples and beliefs that they considered heretical.

In many cases, grimoires were found in the heretics’ possessions and destroyed.

In 1599, the church published the Indexes of Prohibited Books, in which many grimoires were listed as forbidden, including several mediaeval ones, such as the Key of Solomon, which were still popular.

In Christendom, there also began to develop a widespread fear of witchcraft, which was believed to be Satanic in nature, and the subsequent hysteria, known as the Witch Hunt, caused the death of around 40,000 people, most of whom were women.

Sometimes, those found with grimoires, particularly of a demonological nature, were prosecuted and dealt with as witches, but in most cases, those accused had no access to such books.

The European nation that proved the exception to this, however, was the highly literate Iceland, where a third of the 134 witch trials held involved people who had owned grimoires.

By the end of the Early Modern period and the beginning of the Enlightenment, many European governments brought in laws prohibiting many superstitious beliefs in an attempt to bring an end to the Witch Hunt; this would invariably affect the release of grimoires.

Meanwhile, Hermeticism and the Kabbalah would influence the creation of a mystical philosophy known as Rosicrucianism, which first appeared in the early 17th century, when two pamphlets detailing the existence of the mysterious Rosicrucian group were published in Germany. These claimed that Rosicrucianism had originated with a medieval figure known as Christian Rosenkreuz, who had founded the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross; however, there was no evidence for the existence of Rosenkreuz or the Brotherhood.

18th and 19th centuries

“Emperor Lucifer, master of all the rebel spirits, I beg you to favor me in the call that I am making to your grand minister LUCIFUGÉ ROFOCALE, desiring to make a pact with him; I beg you also, prince Beelzebub to protect me in my undertaking. O count Astarot! Be favorable to me, and make it so that this night the grand Lucifege appears to me in human form, and without any bad odor, and that he accords to me, by the pact that I am going to present to him, all the riches I need.”

From the Grand Grimoire.

The 18th century saw the rise of the Enlightenment, a movement devoted to science and rationalism, predominantly amongst the ruling classes. However, amongst much of Europe, belief in magic and witchcraft persisted, as did the witch trials in certain areas. Certain governments did try and crack down on magicians and fortune tellers particularly that of France, where the police viewed them as social pests who took money from the gullible, often in a search for treasure. In doing so, they confiscated many grimoires.

It was also in France that a new form of printing developed, the Bibliothèque bleue, and many grimoires published through this circulated amongst an ever-growing percentage of the populace, in particular the Grand Albert, the Petit Albert (1782), the Grimoire du Pape Honorious and the Enchiridion Leonis Papae. The Petit Albert in particular contained a wide variety of different forms of magic, for instance, dealing in both simple charms for ailments along with more complex things such as the instructions for making a Hand of Glory.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, following the French Revolution of 1789, a hugely influential grimoire was published under the title of the Grand Grimoire, which was considered particularly powerful, because it involved conjuring and making a pact with the devil’s chief minister, Lucifugé Rofocale, in order to gain wealth from him. A new version of this grimoire was later published under the title of the Dragon rouge and was available for sale in many Parisian bookstores.

Similar books published in France at the time included the Black Pullet and the Grimoirium Verum. The Black Pullet, probably authored in late-18th-century Rome or France, differs from the typical grimoires in that it does not claim to be a manuscript from antiquity but told by a man who was a member of Napoleon’s armed expeditionary forces in Egypt.

The widespread availability of such printed grimoires in France—despite the opposition of both the rationalists and the church—spread to neighboring countries such as Spain and Germany.

In Switzerland, the city of Geneva was commonly associated with the occult at the time, particularly by Catholics, because it had been a stronghold of Protestantism, and many of those interested in the esoteric travelled from their own Roman Catholic nations to Switzerland to purchase grimoires or to study with occultists.

Soon, grimoires appeared that involved Catholic saints within them; one such example that appeared during the 19th century that became relatively popular, particularly in Spain, was the Libro de San Cipriano, or The Book of St. Ciprian, which falsely claimed to date from c. 1000. Like most grimoires of this period, it dealt with many things including how to discover treasure.

Title page of the 1880 New York edition of The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses

In Germany, with the increased interest in folklore during the 19th century, many historians took an interest in magic and in grimoires. Several published extracts of such grimoires in their own books on the history of magic, thereby helping to further propagate them. Perhaps the most notable of these was the Protestant pastor Georg Conrad Horst (1779–1832), who from 1821 to 1826, published a six-volume collection of magical texts in which he studied grimoires as a peculiarity of the Mediaeval mindset.

Another scholar of the time interested in grimoires, the antiquarian bookseller Johann Scheible, first published the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, two influential magical texts that claimed to have been written by the ancient Jewish figure Moses.

The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses were amongst the works that later spread to the countries of Scandinavia, where, in Danish and Swedish, grimoires were known as black books and were commonly found amongst members of the army.

In Britain, new grimoires continued to be produced throughout the 18th century, such as Ebenezer Sibly’s A New and Complete Illustration of the Celestial Science of Astrology.

In the last decades of that century, London experienced a revival of interest in the occult, and this was only further propagated when Francis Barrett published The Magus in 1801.

The Magus contained many things taken from older grimoires, particularly those of Cornelius Agrippa, and while not achieving initial popularity upon release, gradually became a particularly influential text.

One of Barrett’s pupils, John Parkin, created his own handwritten grimoire, The Grand Oracle of Heaven, or, The Art of Divine Magic, although it was never actually published, largely because Britain at the time was at war with France, and grimoires were commonly associated with the French. The only writer to publish British grimoires widely in the early 19th century, Robert Cross Smith, released The Philosophical Merlin (1822) and The Astrologer of the Nineteenth Century (1825), but neither sold well.

In the late 19th century, several of these texts (including the Abra-Melin text and the Key of Solomon) were reclaimed by para-Masonic magical organizations, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and the Ordo Templi Orientis.

20th and 21st centuries

The Secret Grimoire of Turiel claims to have been written in the 16th century, but no copy older than 1927 has been produced.

A modern grimoire is the Simon Necronomicon, named after a fictional book of magic in the stories of H. P. Lovecraft and inspired by Babylonian mythology and the “Ars Goetia”, a section in the Lesser Key of Solomon that concerns the summoning of demons. The Azoëtia of Andrew D. Chumbley has been described as a modern grimoire.

The neopagan religion of Wicca publicly appeared in the 1940s, and Gerald Gardner introduced the Book of Shadows as a Wiccan grimoire.

In the first decade of the 21st century, an assembly of practitioners of esoteric magic, known as the Grey Council, founded the world’s first recognized school of wizardry in California, USA. Incorporated on 14 March 2004, the Grey School of Wizardry is a non-denominational, secular non-profit educational institution. The school received a 501(c) (3) tax exemption from the Internal Revenue Service on September 27, 2007. The school’s headmaster Oberon Zell-Ravenheart wrote and compiled the school’s Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard (New Page, 2004) and the sequel Companion for the Apprentice Wizard (New Page 2006).

In popular culture

The term Grimoire commonly serves as an alternative name for a spell book or tome of magical knowledge in fantasy fiction and role-playing games. The most famous fictional Grimoire is the Necronomicon, a creation of H. P. Lovecraft.

In the film The Sorcerer this type of book was called the Incantus.

In the television series Charmed, the Grimoire is known as the evil equivalent of the Halliwell sisters’ Book of Shadows. In the television series Witches of East End, a Grimoire is a book of spells used by the Beauchamp witches in the show. In the television series The Vampire Diaries and its spin-off The Originals, a Grimoire is a witch’s record of all of her/his spells, rituals, potions, and herbs.

The central book of spells in the Disney animated fantasy adventure series Gargoyles, the Grimorum Arcanorum, is an ancient book of magic used by Demona and David Xanatos in various schemes throughout the series’ storyline. In the video game Nier, one of the main characters is a talking grimoire who is usually referred to as Weiss, despite his protests that his companions should use his full title, Grimoire Weiss.

Rose Lalonde from Homestuck had a Grimoire for Summoning the Zoologically Dubious, which she alchemized together with her Needlewands to create the Thorns of Oglogoth.

In Gregory Maguire’s series of books set in the Land of Oz: Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, Son of a Witch, A Lion Among Men, and Out of Oz referred to together as The Wicked Years, there is a book of spells and other magical arcana called the Grimmerie. The name is an example of Maguire’s subtle changing of familiar words that help to remind readers that while the place they read about is mostly familiar, it is also ever so slightly skewed.

In the 2014 video game Destiny, Grimoire cards are obtained by the player by playing different game modes. The main purpose of the Grimoire is to give player a little bit of background lore relating to the destiny universe.

Levels of Life are being written by historian Theresa J Morris aka TJ Morris to serve others on planet earth. The main reason that Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris shares her information with others is to usher in the Ascension Age as an Era Cop so that others may enjoy health and prosperity for all while on the planet. TJ shares that we are ETs just visiting this planet.

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References

Morris, Theresa J (2009) Ascension Age, 2012 & Beyond, Timely Manor Books, ISBN

Butler, E. M. (1979). “The Solomonic Cycle”. Ritual Magic (Reprint ed.). CUP Archive. ISBN 0-521-295

Davies, Owen (2009). Grimoires: A History of Magic Books. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 9780199204519. OCLC 244766270.53-X.

Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (2006). “Grimoire”. The Encyclopedia of Magic and Alchemy. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1-4381-3000-7.

Malchus, Marius (2011). The Secret Grimoire of Turiel. Theophania Publishing. ISBN 978-1-926842-80-6.

Semple, Gavin (1994) ‘The Azoëtia – reviewed by Gavin Semple’, Starfire Vol. I, No. 2, 1994, p. 194.

Davies, Owen (4 April 2008). “Owen Davies’s top 10 grimoires”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-04-08.

Myash, Jeff, (March 2, 2011), “This spells trouble! Real-life Dumbledore opens world’s first wizard school”, MailOnline, Retrieved October 13, 2013.

Bibliography

Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide ISBN 978-0-557-40127-7

ID: 14356281

Category: Religion & Spirituality

Description: A woman ET Contactee shares information that was part of her spiritual path. The Book becomes her book of shadows to remember how that of the past may haunt the future based on information kept for future reference that was life changing.

Publisher: TJ Morris ACO LLC

Copyright Year: © 2014

Language: English

Keywords: aliens, UFO, Contactee, Ascension, Metaphysics, Esoteric, Trance Channel

License: Standard Copyright License

External links

Look up grimoire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Internet Sacred Text Archives: Grimoires

Digitized Grimoires

Categories: GrimoiresEsotericismMagic (paranormal) Non-fiction genres

  • Inspirational Writing (Spiritual/Religious)
  • Memoirs/Personal Essay
  • Magazine Feature Article
  • Genre Short Story (Mystery, Romance, etc.)
  • Mainstream/Literary Short Story
  • Rhyming Poetry
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  • Stage Play
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Theresa J Morris Biography

BIO THERESA J. MORRIS Theresa J Morris, known as TJ Morris ~ Theresa J Morris, author, entrepreneur, radio host, advocate for the working class net citizens.  Theresa’s books are available through many websites including her own theresajmorris.com.  Theresa is a former toastmaster member and speaker on various paranormal phenomena.   TJ Morris shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including branding and product design for entrepreneurs and inventors. Being an Artist and Author TJ began her web presence as a syndicated columnist and graduated to a publisher and webmaster. As a result TJ has launched several brands and associations including the ACE and ACO in the world. TJ has become the advocate for various causes including civil rights while sharing ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. TJ Morris Media is a home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, entrepreneurs, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Theresa’s background is in investigations and getting the unbiased facts as a syndicated columnist. Her passion is ancient history and new conscious thought research of the critical mass mind and internet.  TJ now shares TJ Morris dba ACIR in American Culture Internet Relations in communications, education, and information in various topics including ancient history and forteana (anomalous phenomena). Paranormal Romance based on ancient past and new thought teachings with metaphysics is a passion of her writing interests

 

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Next Steps of Action

Explain the steps that now need to be taken

Ascension Center Education

Ancient Wisdom & New Thought Teachings

Long-term Goal

Customer Wishes

Fulfilling Customer Needs

Cost Analysis

Strengths and Advantages

Next Steps of Action

  • Emotional
  • Mental
  • Physical
  • Spiritual
  • WELL-BEING

CHOSEN TO TEACH AS STUDENTS & TEACHERS FOR ALL!

Psychic Awakening Classes

Chosen to share in Communication that which would be found as the Ascended Masters new Ascension Center in the Ascension Age and Golden Age of Cosmology in 2012 & Beyond.

CREDO

I would not interfere wit any creed of yours or want to appear that I have all the cures

There is so much to know~So many things are true~

The way my feet must go may not b the best for you~ And so I give this spark of what is light to me, to guide you through the dark, but not tell you what to see~ Anonymous

ANCIENT MYSTERY SCHOOLS

NOW OPEN FOR MASTERS

MISSION STATEMENT

We, the members of the Ascension Center, ascribe to the highest standards of excellence with regard to the uplifting of humankind by providing spiritual and educational awareness.

Ascension Centers was founded for Spiritual Growth, Educational Awareness, and Communication of Truth!

Services are provided as private and group counseling, study groups, classes, seminars, and written publications, audio/visual tapes, and other workshop materials, which is a synthesis of ancient wisdom and new though teachings and philosophies!

DESCRIPTION

We are an organization with patrons throughout the United States and the world. Subscribers receive a monthly report/newsletter online with updates.

We share discounts on all classes to the non-member public for all our classes, seminars, books, tapes, and materials published by the Ascension Centers Non-Profit Organization of volunteers.

We appoint our directors and out members when joined to our group receive one vote for officers elected every three (3) years.

2012-2015

Officers:

Theresa J Thurmond Morris

Janet Kira Lessin

Phil Laing

Offering:

A spiritual gathering place for private and group counseling, classes, seminars, publications and tapes, and other spiritual and educational products and services.

Classes and seminars are formed to discuss materials, teachings, revelations, and experiences of transformation in individuals through expansions in consciousness, as well as, for healing the planet with love and light in a trusting environment.

Each member is offered the opportunity to accept a lifetime membership.

Each member will be continually supported in the spiritual and educational growth, self-improvement, speechcraft, communication and leadership abilities.

Support is given to each member to live a balanced life. This includes mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual well-being

as Whole Life Living.

Motto”

Making the world a better place for you, me, our children, and the entire human race!”

COURSE CONSCIOUSNESS CONTENT

Introduction to Metaphysics and Spirituality!

  • The Meaning of Ascension

  • Balancing Mind-Body-Spirit

  • Yoga/

  • Jyotish (Vedic Astrology)

  • Ayuvedic Medicine

  • Numerology/Astrology

  • Symbols/Sacred Geometry

  • Semiotics/Morphology

  • Dreams/Subconscious Higher Self-Improvement

  • Past Life Regression

  • Ancient Beliefs & Sacred Places

  • Chakra Balancing & Colors

  • Channeling

  • Tarot/ Balalaika

  • Automatic Writing

  • Dowsing/Pendulums/Crystals

  • Angels, Messengers, Guides

  • Love/Soul/Spirit

  • Mind-Heart-Relationships

  • Spirituality

  • Wicca Magic & Rituals

  • Multi-Dimensional Beings

  • Star Beings- Born Walk-Ins

  • Ascension Masters/Avatars

  • Ascended Masters/Agashan Teachers

  • Extra Terrestrials

  • Spacecraft not of earth origina

  • UFO Studies & Interest Groups

  • Meditations/Affirmations

  • Metpaphysical Tools/

  • Aromatherapy

  • The New Paradigm

  • Ontology

  • Semiotics

  • Epistemology

  • Supreme High Council

  • Humanoid Sentient Intelligent Beings

  • Greys and other beings

  • Spiritual Commerce & Trade

  • Ascension Center Temple Building and Administration

  • Music, Voice, Instruments, Art, Culture, Science, Technology

  • History & Folklife

Ascension Center Education
Ancient Mystery Schools<Name>

Monday, August 10, 2015<Date>, 08:50<Time>, United States of America<Location>

Type of meeting
<Type of meeting>
Meeting called by
<Meeting called by>
Chairperson
<Chairperson>
Attendees
<Attendees>
Minute keeper
<Minute keeper>
Moderator
<Moderator>
Observers
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Facility personnel
<Facility personnel>

Topics

Num. Topic Responsible Time
1. Members Sign In Sheet Phil Laing
2. Welcome by Officers Janet Lessin
3. Power Point Presentation TJ, Janet, Phil
4. Introduction to Classes Janet & TJ
5. Facilitator Phil Laing

Additional information:

Please bring
<Please bring>
Please read
<Please read>
Notes
<Notes>

Minutes for Ascension Center Education
Ancient Mystery Schools

United States of America, Monday, August 10, 2015 08:50

Members Sign In Sheet Phil Laing
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:

Welcome by Officers Janet Lessin
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:

Power Point Presentation TJ, Janet, Phil
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:

Introduction to Classes Janet & TJ
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:

Facilitator Phil Laing
Discussion:
Conclusion:
To do: Responsible party: Deadline:

Theresa J Morris aka TJ Morris

Theresa J Morris, known as TJ MorrisTJ Morris 2012

Theresa J Morris, author, entrepreneur, radio host, advocate for the working class net citizens.

Theresa’s books are available through many websites including her own theresajmorris.com.

Theresa is a former toastmaster member and speaker on various paranormal phenomena.

 TJ Morris shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including branding and product design for entrepreneurs and inventors. Being an Artist and Author TJ began her web presence as a syndicated columnist and graduated to a publisher and webmaster. As a result TJ has launched several brands and associations including the ACE and ACO in the world. TJ has become the advocate for various causes including civil rights while sharing ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. TJ Morris Media is a home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, entrepreneurs, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Theresa’s background is in investigations and getting the unbiased facts as a syndicated columnist. Her passion is ancient history and new conscious thought research of the critical mass mind and internet.

TJ now shares TJ Morris dba ACIR in American Culture Internet Relations in communications, education, and information in various topics including ancient history and forteana (anomalous phenomena). Paranormal Romance based on ancient past and new thought teachings with metaphysics is a passion of her writing interests.

Theresa J Morris is Author/Entrepreneur-Speaker – TJ Morris ET Radio Show Host. 
Founding Director of ACIR-ACE-ACO Social Networking Internet Clubs. TJ Morris tm ACIR sm. Theresa’s Brand is known as TJ Morris dba ACIR. American author, radio host, and speaker who has had UFO sightings, CE5 Contact and has devoted her Life’s Work to sharing what she calls The Ascension Age with co-crafting and creating new spiritual education paths for the future. Theresa also known as TJ is a member of BMI. Theresa began her research in the human potential movement after NDE near death experiences. TJ shares her education and spiritual philosophy based on her experiences including UFO Sightings, ET Encounters and her continued research with friends who join her TJ Morris ACO Social Club. TJ Morris is the Talk Show Host of the TJ Morris ET Radio weekly. TJ has written several books including Cosmos Knowing Cosmology, Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Roswell Encounters, Alien UFO Story by TJ. Theresa of Ascension and others. TJ is now working with various small business entrepreneurs as a consultant. Tj’s work includes art, culture, education, social changes and a supports a new spiritual science movement for the Ascension Age as a “Family of Kindred Spirits.” TJ’s professional background is as a Private, Legal, and Government investigator, and 
Investigative Reporter and blogger. TJ owns TJ Morris Hosting, Publishing, Radio.

About Theresa Morris

ACE -ACO-ACIR

ACE METAPHYSICIANS with TJ Morris Media/Radio

Founder Theresa J Morris

Annual funding from foundations, partner organizations, membership fees and individual donations.

ACE organizes a number of public events each year, including workshops, conferences, lectures, and dialogue sessions.

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Events are opportunities for advocacy and education, but they are also occasions for mutual learning, reflection and deeper understanding of issues.

Events distribute Information for Educational Purposes

One of the most prominent features of reports is the high degree of trust and hope they put on new so-called partnerships between state and non-state actors and corporations.

Multi-stakeholder partnerships can bring a number of risks and side effects with them that must be considered carefully in the further discussions

ACE nonprofit Inc. distributes educational research material.

We at ACE Nonprofit Inc. are a global tectonic economics affiliate and share in our ACE Community Online Practicing Skills for people.

We distribute material without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. We believe this constitutes a fair use of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 17 U.S.C ß 107. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

ACE Metaphysics taught by ACE

We are a membership driven metaphysical spiritual community online practicing skills association.

Fostering educational excellence in spiritual fellowship growth, education, and continued research for the communication of truth. To promote student achievement in preparation of global competitiveness in communication online practicing skills. We specialize in art, culture, education, and research. We provide a spiritual gathering place online for private and group counseling, classes, seminars, publications, video tapes, and media of spiritual education, research, in products and services. Classes, events, radio shows, seminars, are formed to discuss workshop materials, revelations, teachings, and experiences of transformation in individuals. We do this through expansions in consciousness. We also share the healing of the planet and species with love and light in a trusting environment. Each member is continually supported in their spiritual journey and path of enlightenment. Each member is assisted in our community online as what we call the Internet to spiritual and educational self-growth, self-improvement, communication skills, speechcraft, and leadership abilities as both students and teachers in this world. TJ shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including product design. As a result ACE and ACO has become the home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Ascension Center Education aka ACE Folklife Archivists. We are agents, consultants, organizers, archivists, copywriters, editors, writers and practitioners. We are the ACO Community Online Practicing Skills or ACIR COPS. ACIR American Culture International Relations founded by Theresa J Morris.

Theresa J Morris

Intuitive Spiritual Metaphysician Minister and Human Design Analyst Communications Counselor. Healing esoteric arts with over 30 years’ experience. Studied ancient wisdoms and new thought teachings, traditional cultures and spiritual traditions including the paranormal. Speaker, Life Coach, Intuitive Tarot Reader and trans-personal consultant. Sharing spiritual modalities, combined with unique systems about life from experience and what works. Soul education as ordained interfaith nondenominational Minister performs marriages, Spiritual Counselor, Intuitive Medium and Energy Teacher. Facilitator for metaphysical workshops, educational seminars, and Hypno-Regressionist. Author of over 30 books and agent, consultant, organizer for organizational events.

Author Image

TJ Morris Publishing a division of TJ Morris ACO. Theresa J Thurmond Morris is an author, entrepreneur, agent-consultant-organizer in the USA. Theresa Janette goes by TJ to her friends in the American Culture Online Community which she began as her own social network media friends before Facebook and Twitter. TJ now shares her life online 50% of the time with ACO Social Service Club and team building for the ACE Nonprofit Inc and ACO Corp.Org. TJ Morris Business Services assists entrepreneurs in workshops, seminars, and event planning to share a community online practicing skills as COPS.TJ is a member of BMI, ACE Folklife, ACE Nonprofit Inc., and ERA COP Association for advancing art, culture, education, and research for cyberspace community in our Global Culture. TJ Morris dba ACIR, ACO, ACE, TJ Morris Treasure Shop, and ERA COP. TJ Morris ET Radio Show, TJMorris Media, TJ Morris Hosting and TJ Morris Entertainment. Artists, Authors, Consultants, Organizers, Researchers use TJ Morris. Theresa J Morris shares authoring 40 books available online at Amazon, Lulu, Books-A-Million, and stores. TJ speaks at conferences such as the Mid-South Con and Lightworkers Conferences. TJ specializes in spiritual, metaphysical, paranormal, science fiction and fantasy. TJ subscribes to Universal Life Theories in Cosmology, Philosophy, Psychology and Theosophy. Soul Science improving consciousness in literacy and education online is shared in the TJ Morris Radio Shows, TJ Morris Media & Hosting. Author’s Videos

Available on Youtube.com

Links

TJ Morris ET

Theresa J Morris

ACO Press Club – ERA COP

TJ Morris ET Radio

TJ MORRIS MEDIA

TJ Morris Hosting

Cosmos Connection

TJ Morris RADIO

TJ THURMOND Morris

Alien Contact Organization

Era Cop News

TJ Morris Publishing Div of TJ Morris dba ACIR

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ASCENSION AGE 2012 & BEYOND

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ASCENSION AGE 2012 & BEYOND

By Theresa J Thurmond Morris

Paperback: $19.99

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Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond is about awareness and awakening. This is a guide book for humankind. This is the first in a series of books that will assist everyone. Ascension Age is about being a… More >

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UPLIFTING THE SOUL

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UPLIFTING THE SOUL

By Theresa J Thurmond Morris

Paperback: $19.99

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THIS IS ABOUT A SPIRITUAL JOURNEY This is the first (1) spiritual guide book in a series by Theresa “TJ” Thurmond Morris. A young many, 28 yrs., Australian, writer, disabled, loses his… More >

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